US GASOLINE & OTHER FUEL ADDITIVES DEMAND (million dollars) % Annual Growth Item 1992 2001 2006 01/92 06/01 Fuel Additives 3744 9935 12570 11.5 4.8 Oxygenates
3168 8735 10990 11.9 4.7 MTBE 1958 5290 2530 11.7 -13.7 Ethanol 1210 3150 8080 11.2 20.7 Biodiesel neg 35 130 -- 30.0 Other Oxygenates
neg 260 250 -- -0.8 Specialty Additives 576 1200 1580 8.5 5.7 [c] 2002 by The Freedonia Group, Inc.
On May 9, Earth Island's Bluewater Network and 90 other environmental groups sent a joint letter to Congress demanding a complete ban on the use of the gasoline additive methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and all other ether-based oxygenates
. "A phase-out of MTBE and other ether-based oxygenates
must be complete and total to be effective," the letter states.
The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required RFG, which is used in nine major US urban areas with ozone pollution problems, to contain two percent of oxygenates
The concentrations of alternative oxygenates
found around leaking tanks in the new study are already surprisingly high, says environmental engineer Susan E.
US Gasoline & Other Fuel Additive Demand (million dollars) % Annual Growth Item 1994 1999 2004 99/94 04/99 Fuel Additives 2185 6884 5986 12.2 -2.8 Demand MTBE 2450 4120 2050 5.3 -13.0 Ethanol 1460 1470 2360 0.1 9.9 Other Oxygenates
150 220 100 3.9 -14.6 Specialty Additives 445 1074 1476 9.2 6.6
Reduction in aromatics, including the mandated maximum benzene content of 1% should result in reduced fuel permeation through elastomers while increase in oxygenates
may increase permeation through elastomers and, in the case of ethanol, definitely will do so.
DEP said McGinty expressed that a phase-in period would also "ensure that a new oxygenate
could be produced and provided in volumes that refiners need to make the transition without disrupting fuel supplies." Additionally, DEP said McGinty noted that "time is needed to retrofit the supply and delivery chain."
"In California, ethanol is being blended into gasoline in areas that do not fall under the Clean Air Act oxygenate
According to EPA, New Hampshire's fuel program preserves "many" of the air quality benefits of the federal program while eliminating the oxygenate
requirement that has led many gasoline providers to add methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to gasoline.
Gasoline must contain MTBE at 15 percent by volume to qualify as an oxygenate
. The resulting oxygen increase improves gasoline's combustion efficiency especially at cold temperatures, thereby cutting carbon monoxide emissions by 10 to 20 percent.
Fluosol is being used experimentally in animals to oxygenate
the heart during this induced "ischemia,' or lack of oxygen.
The Form EIA-819, "'Monthly Oxygenate
Report" provides production data for fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE).