Common surgical treatments include widening of the urethra ("dilation"); bladder distention ("hydrodistention"), in which the bladder is filled with water to a high pressure; and bladder instillation, in which chemicals are put into the bladder (including silver nitrate, oxychlorosene
[Chlorpactin WCS-90], and the organic solvent dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO]).
Other intravesical agents that are used in the symptomatic relief of IC are oxychlorosene
(Clorpactin[R]), heparin, and a variety of anticholinergic drugs (Ratner et al., 1992; Seshadri, Emerson, & Morales, 1994).
A variety of other drugs have been used experimentally for bladder washes, including silver nitrate, sodium oxychlorosene
(Clorpactin[R] WCS-90), heparin, and pentosanpolysulfate (Elmiron[R]).