oxybutynin


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oxybutynin

 [ok″se-bu´tĭ-nin]
an anticholinergic and antimuscarinic having direct antispasmodic effects on smooth muscle; used orally as the chloride salt in treatment of uninhibited neurogenic bladder and reflex neurogenic bladder.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

oxybutynin

Cystrin (UK), Kentera (UK), Oxytrol

oxycodone hydrochloride

Oxecta, OxyContin, Oxynorm (UK), Roxicodone, Supeudol (CA)

Pharmacologic class: Opioid agonist

Therapeutic class: Narcotic analgesic

Controlled substance schedule II

Pregnancy risk category B

FDA Box Warning

• Drug is opioid agonist and Schedule II controlled substance, with abuse potential similar to morphine. This potential must be considered when prescribing or dispensing drug.

• Extended-release tablets are indicated for managing moderate to severe pain when continuous, around-the-clock analgesia is needed for extended period of time. Extended-release tablets aren't intended for as-needed analgesia.

• Extended-release 80-mg tablets are for use only in opioid-tolerant patients. This strength may cause fatal respiratory depression when given to patients without previous opioid exposure.

• Instruct patients to swallow extended-release tablets whole. Caution them not to break, chew, or crush them, as this causes rapid release and absorption of potentially fatal dose.

Action

Unknown. Thought to interact with opioid receptor sites primarily in limbic system, thalamus, and spinal cord, blocking transmission of pain impulses.

Availability

Capsules (immediate-release): 5 mg

Solution (oral): 5 mg/5 ml

Tablets: 5 mg, 7.5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg

Tablets (controlled-release): 10 mg, 15 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, 40 mg, 60 mg, 80 mg

Indications and dosages

Moderate to severe pain

Adults: 5 mg P.O. q 6 hours p.r.n., increased gradually to 10 to 30 mg q 6 hours p.r.n.

Moderate or severe pain when continuous around-the-clock analgesia is needed

Adults: 10 mg P.O. (controlled-release) q 12 hours. For patients already taking opioids, use total oral oxycodone daily equianalgesic dosage and then round down to closest tablet strength. For breakthrough pain, give supplemental immediate-release doses.

Dosage adjustment

• Hepatic disease

• Renal impairment

• Debilitated or opioid-naive patients

Off-label uses

• Postherpetic neuralgia (controlled release form)

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug

• Paralytic ileus

• When opioids are contraindicated (as in respiratory depression, severe bronchial asthma, hypercarbia)

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• head trauma; increased intracranial pressure (ICP); severe renal, hepatic, or pulmonary disease; hypothyroidism; adrenal insufficiency; urethral stricture; undiagnosed abdominal pain or prostatic hyperplasia; extensive burns; alcoholism

• history of substance abuse

• prolonged or high-dose therapy

• elderly or debilitated patients

• labor and delivery

• pregnant or breastfeeding patients

• children younger than age 18.

Administration

• Be aware that drug has high abuse potential.

• Know that controlled-release Oxy-Contin isn't indicated for p.r.n. pain control but is reserved for patients who need continuous, around-the-clock analgesia.

• Be aware that 80-mg controlled-release tablets are for opioid-tolerant patients only.

Never break, crush, or let patient chew controlled-release forms. Otherwise, rapid release and absorption of potentially fatal dose may occur.

• Give Oxecta tablets whole. Don't crush or dissolve tablets or administer by nasogastric, gastric, or other feeding tubes, because this may cause obstruction of feeding tubes.

• When discontinuing, taper dosage gradually to prevent withdrawal symptoms.

Adverse reactions

CNS: dizziness, asthenia, drowsiness, euphoria, light-headedness, insomnia, confusion, anxiety, twitching, abnormal dreams and thoughts

CV: orthostatic hypotension, circulatory depression, bradycardia, shock

GI: nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, ileus, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, gastritis, anorexia

GU: urinary retention

Respiratory: apnea, respiratory depression, respiratory arrest

Skin: pruritus, sweating

Other: chills, fever, hiccups, physical and psychological drug dependence

Interactions

Drug-drug. Antihistamines, sedative-hypnotics: additive CNS depression

Barbiturates, protease inhibitors: increased respiratory and CNS depression

Opioid agonist-antagonists: precipitation of opioid withdrawal in physically dependent patients

Drug-diagnostic tests. Amylase, lipase: increased levels

Drug-behaviors. Alcohol use: additive CNS depression

Patient monitoring

Monitor vital signs and respiratory status. Withhold drug in significant respiratory or CNS depression.

• Assess patient's pain level frequently.

• Monitor bowel and bladder function.

• Assess patient for anxiety, twitching, and other CNS symptoms.

• Closely monitor head-trauma patient. Drug may increase ICP while masking signs and symptoms.

• Carefully assess patient with acute abdominal pain. Drug may obscure diagnosis.

• Stay alert for drug hoarding, tolerance, and dependence.

Patient teaching

Caution patient not to break, crush, chew, or dissolve controlled-release tablets. Warn him that doing so may cause rapid drug release and absorption (possibly fatal).

• Tell patient taking controlled-release form not to drive for 3 to 4 days after dosage increase, after consuming even a single alcoholic beverage, or if also taking antihistamines or other drugs that cause drowsiness.

• Tell patient to take Oxecta tablets whole.

Instruct patient to promptly report adverse reactions, especially difficulty breathing or slow pulse.

• Advise patient not to drink alcohol.

• Tell patient not to be alarmed if controlled-release tablets appear in stools; drug has already been absorbed.

• Advise ambulatory patient to change position slowly, to avoid dizziness from orthostatic hypotension.

• Instruct patient to consult prescriber before taking other drugs.

• Caution patient to avoid driving and other hazardous activities, because drug may cause drowsiness or dizziness.

• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, and behaviors mentioned above.

McGraw-Hill Nurse's Drug Handbook, 7th Ed. Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

oxybutynin

(ŏk′sē-byo͞ot′n-ĭn)
n.
An anticholinergic drug, C22H31NO3, used to treat incontinence and other urinary symptoms.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

oxybutynin

Ditropan® Urology A spasmolytic anticholinergic GI and GU tract colic used to ↓ urge incontinence, overactive bladder, bladder Sx associated with neurogenic bladder–eg, frequency, urgency, dysuria, urinary leakage Contraindications Urinary retention, gastric retention, narrow-angle glaucoma Adverse effects Dry mouth, constipation, somnolence, diarrhea, blurred vision, dry eyes, dizziness, rhinitis. See Urge incontinence.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

oxybutynin

An anticholinergic antispasmodic drug used to treat urinary urgency, frequency and incontinence and bed-wetting in children. Brand names are Cystrin, Ditropan and Lyrinel XL.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
A systematic review and meta-analysis supported that ketamine, oxybutynin, and some anti-cholinergic drugs were useful in preventing CRBD.
Oxybutynin is FDA approved for treatment of urinary frequency, incontinence, and enuresis, but it is not approved for hyperhidrosis.
Oxybutynin, which has been extensively studied in the pediatric population, was also effective, but central nervous system adverse events were common.
The clearest effect was associated with anticholinergics used to treat depression - for example, amitriptyline, dosulepin and paroxetine - and bladder conditions, such as tolterodine, oxybutynin and solifenacin.
Current 505(b)(2) candidates under development by Juniper include JNP-0101, an oxybutynin ring for the treatment of overactive bladder; JNP-0201, a combination estradiol + progesterone ring for hormone replacement therapy; and JNP-0301, a natural progesterone ring for the prevention of preterm birth.
(6) Currently in Canada there are six anticholinergic drugs approved for treatment of OAB symptoms: darifenacin, fesoterodine, oxybutynin, solifenacin, tolterodine and trospium.
Administration of transdermal oxybutynin (OXY-TDS) was approved by the Spanish Medicine Agency in 2004.
The physician provided lifestyle advice, prescribed PFMT training and oxybutynin 5 mg three times a day, and undertook a medication review.
Use low-dose oxybutynin as a first-line treatment option for patients with primary hyperhidrosis to improve symptoms and quality of life.
M2 PHARMA-November 15, 2016-ACETO to introduce Oxybutynin Chloride Extended-Release Tablets, USP
M2 EQUITYBITES-November 15, 2016-ACETO to introduce Oxybutynin Chloride Extended-Release Tablets, USP
26, 2015 in JAMA Internal Medicine, people who took high doses of tricyclic antidepressants such as doxepin (Sinequan), diphenhydramine (Benadryl), older antihistamines such as chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton), or antimuscarinic drugs for bladder control, such as oxybutynin (Ditropan) for longer than three years were significantly more likely to develop dementia.