For the quinolones family, the standards of enrofloxacin, flumequine, norfloxacin, oxolinic acid
, and sarafloxacin were obtained from Sigma Chemical Co., whereas the ciprofloxacin and the nalidixic acid were purchased from the Acros Organics (Geel, Belgium) and from the CDN Isotopes (Quebec, Canada), respectively.
Additionally, Bioo Scientific offers sensitive ELISAs for specific quinolones including kits for the detection of enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, flumequine, norfloxacin, nalidixic acid, sarafloxacin, ofloxacin and oxolinic acid
. The newest additions to this line of kits for fluoroquinolone residue detection in food and feed samples include the MaxSignal[R] Difloxacin ELISA Test Kit, the Maxsignal[R] Ofloxacin ELISA Kit, the MaxSignal[R] Sarafloxacin ELISA Test Kit and the MaxSignal[R] Oxolinic Acid
ELISA Test Kit.
Contreras, "Development and validation of a method for the simultaneous extraction and separate measurement of oxytetracycline, florfenicol, oxolinic acid
and flumequine from marine sediments," Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol.
Part 2--interaction of nickel(II) with the antibacterial drug oxolinic acid," Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, vol.
Katsaros, "Synthesis, structure and biological activity of copper(II) complexes with oxolinic acid," Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, vol.
The seventh, BCR-725, is specific for testing salmon tissue for flumequine and oxolinic acid
, two quinolones frequently used in aquaculture against furunculosis, enteric redmouth disease, pseudotuberculosis and vibrosis.
treatment of urinary-tract infections.
Cross-resistance among cinoxacin, ciprofloxacin, DJ-6783, enoxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, and oxolinic acid
after in vitro selection of resistant populations.
Antibiotics commonly used in aquaculture are furazolidone, chloramphenicol, estreptomycin, erythromycin, kanamycin, oxytetracycline, neomycin and oxolinic acid
Resistance may well have originated in the food source, since several antibiotic classes are used as feed supplements in animal rearing and aquaculture in Greece: sulfonamides (trimethoprim/sulfathiazine), tetracyclines (oxytetracycline), and quinolones (oxolinic acid