oxidative burst

oxidative burst

the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by certain cells, particularly MACROPHAGES and NEUTROPHILS, following challenge by a PATHOGEN. The ROS are generated irrespective of the type of pathogen, be it bacterial, fungal or viral. ROS generation leads to the killing of pathogens engulfed by PHAGOCYTOSIS. There is rapid activation of LEUKOCYTE NADPH oxidase, which catalyses formation of the superoxide ion (.O2 -). This then forms H2 O2, which can kill engulfed bacteria, unless they are protected by CATALASE.

Neutrophils contain the enzyme myeloperoxidase, which converts H2 O2 to hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in the presence of chloride ions. This dissociates to the hypochlorite ion (OCl-), which is a powerful oxidant and antimicrobial agent, that can damage cell membranes, genetic material and cause cell death.

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The peroxidation of leukocytes index ratio (PLIR) measures the resistance of leukocytes to exogenous oxidative stress and their functional capacity of oxidative burst upon activation [14].
The results obtained in this study highlight a short-term oxidative DNA damage induced by CABG procedure in CAD patients and a complete recovery of this oxidative burst six months after the procedure.
In contrast, CD137, a costimulatory immune checkpoint molecule, could reduce typical macrophage characteristics such as phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and CD14 expression, which could induce the differentiation of monocytes to dendritic cells (DC) and DC maturation and reduce ROS generation [39].
Additionally, oxidative burst is also required in the clearance of apoptotic cells by alternatively activated macrophages during wound healing process [53].
The reduced muscle damage response in NAC may be further explained by previous observations of attenuated eccentric exercise-induced muscle injury following neutrophil and macrophage depletion suggesting that neutrophil's/macrophages' oxidative burst maybe responsible for part of muscle's injury during early recovery [32, 61].
In this context, although oxidative stress is involved in metabolic syndrome, decreases in oxidative burst of neutrophils occurred in some conditions, such as hypercholesterolemia [8] and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) [9].
In addition, they focus on mitochondria-targeted MitoQ and SkQ antioxidants and propose astaxanthin, a carotenoid, for acute inflammatory conditions characterized by pathologically increased oxidative burst, for example, avian influenza with acute respiratory distress syndrome and ischemia-reperfusion.
Nabinger et al., "Protein-tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 positively regulates macrophage oxidative burst," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
The antigen receptors are themselves OS-generating enzymes, contributing further to enhancing the cellular "oxidative burst" against exogenous pathogens as well as neighbouring cells [10], causing autoinflammatory and/or allergic diseases [17, 38].
Thaler, "Oxidative burst of neutrophils in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: influence of various cytokines and medication," Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, vol.
The massive production of antimicrobial and tumoricidal ROS in an inflammatory environment is called "oxidative burst" and plays an important role as the first line of defense against environmental pathogens.
In the response to various stimuli, the cells produce a large variety of ROS ([O.sub.2.sup.*-], [H.sub.2][O.sub.2], H[O.sup.*], hypochlorous acid (HOCl), and N-chloroamines (R-NHCl)) during a process called the oxidative burst in order to kill pathogens.

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