oxazepam


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.

oxazepam

 [ok-saz´ĕ-pam]
a benzodiazepine used as an antianxiety agent and sometimes used for relief of symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal.

oxazepam

Apo-Oxazepam (CA), Bio-Oxaxepam (CA) Novoxapam (CA), PMS-Oxazepam (CA), Riva Oxazepam (CA)

Pharmacologic class: Benzodiazepine

Therapeutic class: Anxiolytic, sedative-hypnotic

Controlled substance schedule IV

Pregnancy risk category D

Action

Suppresses CNS stimulation at limbic and subcortical levels by potentiating effects of gamma-aminobutyrate, an inhibitory neurotransmitter. This suppression reduces anxiety and diminishes alcohol withdrawal symptoms.

Availability

Capsules: 10 mg, 15 mg, 30 mg

Tablets: 15 mg

Indications and dosages

Mild to moderate anxiety

Adults: 10 to 15 mg P.O. three to four times daily

Severe anxiety; alcohol withdrawal symptoms

Adults: 15 to 30 mg P.O. three to four times daily

Dosage adjustment

• Elderly patients

Off-label uses

• Insomnia

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug or tartrazine (some products)

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• hepatic dysfunction, severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, myasthenia gravis, CNS depression, uncontrolled severe pain

• history of suicide attempt or drug abuse

• concurrent use of other benzodiazepines

• elderly or debilitated patients

• pregnant or breastfeeding patients.

Administration

• Administer with or without food.

• Taper dosage after long-term therapy.

Adverse reactions

CNS: dizziness, drowsiness, headache, confusion, poor memory, hangover effect, slurred speech, depression, paradoxical stimulation

CV: orthostatic hypotension, hypotension, ECG changes, tachycardia

EENT: blurred vision, mydriasis, tinnitus

GI: nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea

GU: urinary retention, urinary incontinence

Hematologic: leukopenia

Hepatic: jaundice, hepatitis

Respiratory: respiratory depression

Skin: rash, dermatitis, itching

Other: physical and psychological drug dependence, drug tolerance, withdrawal symptoms

Interactions

Drug-drug. Azole antifungals: increased oxazepam blood level, greater risk of toxicity

Hormonal contraceptives, phenytoin: decreased oxazepam efficacy

Levodopa: decreased levodopa efficacy

Other CNS depressants (including anti-depressants, antihistamines, other benzodiazepines, sedative-hypnotics, opioids): additive CNS depression

Theophylline: decreased sedative effect of oxazepam

Drug-diagnostic tests. Alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase: increased levels

Hematocrit, thyroid uptake of sodium iodide 123I and131I, white blood cells: decreased values

Drug-food. Cabbage: decreased drug blood level

Drug-herbs. Chamomile, hops, kava, valerian, skullcap: increased CNS depression

Drug-behaviors. Alcohol use: increased CNS depression

Patient monitoring

Monitor liver function tests and watch for signs and symptoms of hepatitis.

• Check vital signs. Stay alert for respiratory depression, orthostatic hypotension, and tachycardia.

• Monitor neurologic status. As needed, take measures to prevent injury.

• Watch for signs and symptoms of psychological or physical dependence.

• When tapering, watch for withdrawal symptoms.

Patient teaching

• Tell patient he may take with or without meals, but should avoid cabbage.

• Advise patient to take exactly as prescribed. Tell him drug can cause dependence, and emphasize importance of following tapering instructions to avoid withdrawal symptoms.

Urge patient to immediately report unusual tiredness, nausea, appetite loss, or yellowing of skin or eyes.

• Tell patient to change position slowly to avoid blood pressure decrease.

• Instruct patient to report severe dizziness, weakness, persistent drowsiness, palpitations, or visual changes.

• Advise patient not to drink alcohol.

• Caution patient to avoid driving and other hazardous activities until he knows how drug affects vision, cognition, and balance.

• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, foods, herbs, and behaviors mentioned above.

oxazepam

(ŏk-săz′ə-păm′)
n.
A benzodiazepine drug, C15H11ClN2O2, used to treat anxiety and alcohol withdrawal.

oxazepam

Neuropharmacology A benzodiazepine anxiolytic/sedative/hypnotic Therapeutic range 0.2–1.4 mg/L; 200-1400 µg/L Toxic range Not defined

oxazepam

A BENZODIAZEPINE tranquillizing drug.
References in periodicals archive ?
Oxazepam was the BZD with the lowest prescribing frequency in the metropolitan district (11.0%), while lorazepam was the BZD with the lowest prescribing frequency in the rural district (8.2%).
Hidalgo-Hidalgo-de-Cisneros, "Modified carbon-paste electrodes as sensors for the determination of 1,4-benzodiazepines: application to the determination of diazepam and oxazepam in biological fluids," Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol.
In this case, the fact that the patient had also taken sertraline hydrochloride and oxazepam at that time that should also be considered.
These are: cloanzepam, diazepam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, oxazepam, temazepam, methadone and morphine.
In the New York case, the drug Oxazepam, considered a Class 2 sedative with muscle-relaxing properties, was found in the post-race sample of Wind of Bosphorus, who won a $35,000 claiming race at Belmont on June 2, 2013.
In studies on adults with sleeping disorders valerian or valerian combinations with other herbals proved superior to placebo (Donath et al., 2000; DrelSing et al., 1996; Fernandez-San-Martm et al., 2010; Morin et al., 2005) and equivalent to oxazepam (Ziegler et al., 2002).
The present study was conducted to examine the effect of chlordiazepoxide and oxazepam on the pain and success rate of mandibular block anesthesia.
4: Distribution of patients according to the medication prescribed Frequency Percentage Medications (n=108) (%) Antipsychotics: Haloperidol 30 55.5 Risperidone 12 22.2 Olanzapine 10 18.5 Amisulpride 2 3.70 Anxiolytics: Clonazepam 10 31.2 Lorazepam 18 56.2 Oxazepam 2 6.25 Alprazolam 2 6.25 Mood stabilizers Sodium Valproate 10 66.6 Oxcarbazepine 05 33.3 Antidepressants: TCAs 3 42.8 SSRIs 3 42.8 SNRIs 1 14.2
Tramadol and oxazepam. Effect on pulmonary function in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Sleeping pills Temazepam and Flunitrazepam are also banned, as are anti-anxiety drugs Lorazepam, Oxazepam and Clonazepam.
(15) Ibrulj (2002) studying the effects of oxazepam to cells of Allium cepa's root noted that this drug shows a number of mutagenic and cytotoxic effects manifested in the form of mitotic, cytological and chromosomal abberations.
The new study looked at oxazepam, a type of benzodiazepine.