oxazepam


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.

oxazepam

 [ok-saz´ĕ-pam]
a benzodiazepine used as an antianxiety agent and sometimes used for relief of symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal.

oxazepam

Pharmacologic class: Benzodiazepine

Therapeutic class: Anxiolytic, sedative-hypnotic

Controlled substance schedule IV

Pregnancy risk category D

Action

Suppresses CNS stimulation at limbic and subcortical levels by potentiating effects of gamma-aminobutyrate, an inhibitory neurotransmitter. This suppression reduces anxiety and diminishes alcohol withdrawal symptoms.

Availability

Capsules: 10 mg, 15 mg, 30 mg

Tablets: 15 mg

Indications and dosages

Mild to moderate anxiety

Adults: 10 to 15 mg P.O. three to four times daily

Severe anxiety; alcohol withdrawal symptoms

Adults: 15 to 30 mg P.O. three to four times daily

Dosage adjustment

• Elderly patients

Off-label uses

• Insomnia

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug or tartrazine (some products)

Precautions

Use cautiously in:
• hepatic dysfunction, severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, myasthenia gravis, CNS depression, uncontrolled severe pain
• history of suicide attempt or drug abuse
• concurrent use of other benzodiazepines
• elderly or debilitated patients
• pregnant or breastfeeding patients.

Administration

• Administer with or without food.
• Taper dosage after long-term therapy.

Adverse reactions

CNS: dizziness, drowsiness, headache, confusion, poor memory, hangover effect, slurred speech, depression, paradoxical stimulation

CV: orthostatic hypotension, hypotension, ECG changes, tachycardia

EENT: blurred vision, mydriasis, tinnitus

GI: nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea

GU: urinary retention, urinary incontinence

Hematologic: leukopenia

Hepatic: jaundice, hepatitis

Respiratory: respiratory depression

Skin: rash, dermatitis, itching

Other: physical and psychological drug dependence, drug tolerance, withdrawal symptoms

Interactions

Drug-drug.Azole antifungals: increased oxazepam blood level, greater risk of toxicity

Hormonal contraceptives, phenytoin: decreased oxazepam efficacy

Levodopa: decreased levodopa efficacy

Other CNS depressants (including anti-depressants, antihistamines, other benzodiazepines, sedative-hypnotics, opioids): additive CNS depression

Theophylline: decreased sedative effect of oxazepam

Drug-diagnostic tests.Alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase: increased levels

Hematocrit, thyroid uptake of sodium iodide 123I and131I, white blood cells: decreased values

Drug-food.Cabbage: decreased drug blood level

Drug-herbs.Chamomile, hops, kava, valerian, skullcap: increased CNS depression

Drug-behaviors.Alcohol use: increased CNS depression

Patient monitoring

Monitor liver function tests and watch for signs and symptoms of hepatitis.
• Check vital signs. Stay alert for respiratory depression, orthostatic hypotension, and tachycardia.
• Monitor neurologic status. As needed, take measures to prevent injury.
• Watch for signs and symptoms of psychological or physical dependence.
• When tapering, watch for withdrawal symptoms.

Patient teaching

• Tell patient he may take with or without meals, but should avoid cabbage.
• Advise patient to take exactly as prescribed. Tell him drug can cause dependence, and emphasize importance of following tapering instructions to avoid withdrawal symptoms.

Urge patient to immediately report unusual tiredness, nausea, appetite loss, or yellowing of skin or eyes.
• Tell patient to change position slowly to avoid blood pressure decrease.
• Instruct patient to report severe dizziness, weakness, persistent drowsiness, palpitations, or visual changes.
• Advise patient not to drink alcohol.
• Caution patient to avoid driving and other hazardous activities until he knows how drug affects vision, cognition, and balance.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, foods, herbs, and behaviors mentioned above.

oxazepam

/ox·az·e·pam/ (ok-saz´ĕ-pam) a benzodiazepine tranquilizer, used as an antianxiety agent and as an adjunct in the treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal symptoms.

oxazepam

(ŏk-săz′ə-păm′)
n.
A benzodiazepine drug, C15H11ClN2O2, used to treat anxiety and alcohol withdrawal.

oxazepam

[oksā′zəpam]
a benzodiazepine tranquilizer.
indications It is prescribed to relieve anxiety and nervous tension and manage ethanol withdrawal, and it has unlabeled use for treatment of simple partial seizures.
contraindications Acute narrow-angle glaucoma, psychotic disorders, or known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its use.
adverse effects Among the more serious adverse effects are withdrawal symptoms resulting from discontinuation of treatment. Dizziness and fatigue commonly occur.

oxazepam

Neuropharmacology A benzodiazepine anxiolytic/sedative/hypnotic Therapeutic range 0.2–1.4 mg/L; 200-1400 µg/L Toxic range Not defined

oxazepam

A BENZODIAZEPINE tranquillizing drug.

oxazepam (oksaz´əpam),

n brand name: Serax;
drug class: benzodiazepine (Controlled Substance Schedule IV);
action: produces central nervous system depression by interacting with a benzodiazepine receptor to facilitate the action of the inhibitory neurotransmitter λ-aminobutyric acid (GABA);
uses: anxiety, alcohol withdrawal.

oxazepam

a benzodiazepine tranquilizer. See also diazepam.
References in periodicals archive ?
The patients were randomly divided into three groups including chlordiazepoxide, oxazepam and control groups.
Previous studies have shown that in urine only trace amount of diazepam can be found, 33% of a diazepam dose is excreted as oxazepam glucuronide, and another 20% as conjugates of nordiazepam, temazepam, and other minor metabolites.
In the lab, the researchers placed young perch in tanks for seven days with either no oxazepam or with the drug at one of two concentrations: 1.
But, Oxazepam residues often wind up in natural aquatic systems, downstream from sewage treatment plants, where their effects on ecosystems have been unknown.
Tomas Brodin, in his study on European perch, found that fish that had eaten Oxazepam became bolder, were less social and ate faster.
One might prefer short-acting drugs such as lorazepam or oxazepam for safety because they are quickly metabolized.
Oxazepam is a metabolite of several different benzodiazepines and may be present in the urine of many patients taking benzodiazepines, primarily as the conjugated metabolite, oxazepam glucuronide.
Bedair, 1985, "Application of Derivative-Differential UV Spectrophotometry for the Determination of Oxazepam or Phinobarbitone in the Presence of Dipyridamol," J.
Sedative medications such as oxazepam (Serax), diazepam (Valium, Vazepam), lorazepam (Ativan, Alzapam), or chlordiazepoxide (Librium, Lipoxide) may be ordered to serve as substitutes for the withdrawn alcohol.
The main benzodiapezines identified were diazepam, alprazolam, temazepam, oxazepam and clonazepam.
Roland Florio for Oxycodone, Zaroxolyn, Prednisone, Flomax, potassium, Paxil, Oxazepam, and Furosemide.
A decrease in IGF-1 and an increase in IGFBP1 in arsenic-exposed livers are similar to findings with the nongenotoxic model carcinogens such as oxazepam and Wyeth-14,643 (Iida et al.