Finally, a four-carbon compound known as succinate is formed, isomerizes to malate, and then eventually regenerates into oxaloacetate
, ready to start the cycle again.
A shortage of carbon precursors to maintain adequate levels of oxaloacetate
in liver mitochondria prevents the oxidation of acetyl CoA via the tricarboxylic acid cycle and leads to the formation of ketone bodies.
They are called C4 grasses because they produce a four-carbon compound called oxaloacetate
, during the conversion of C[O.
4] Those patients had elevated AP with normal aspartate aminotransferase (serum glutamate oxaloacetate
transaminase) and calcium values.
Phosphoglucomutase (Pgm), glutamate oxaloacetate
transaminase (Got) (= aspartate aminotransferase), menadione reductase (Mnr) (= diaphorase), malic enzyme (Me), and peroxidase (Per) were stained according to procedures described in Soltis et al.
We have recently employed this method in a study of the enzyme malate dehydrogenase, which interconverts malate and oxaloacetate
by means of a proton and a hydride transfer.
We examined the genotype of each sampled trunk using horizontal starch gel protein electrophoresis, assaying for the following allozymes: acid phosphatase (ACP), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), fluorescent esterase (FE), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamate oxaloacetate
(GOT), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), peroxidase (PER), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD), phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), and phosphoglucomutase (PGM).
Both glycine and aspartate, however, can be converted into glycolysis or TCA-cycle intermediates and respired away relatively easily (aspartate is directly converted into oxaloacetate
while glycine is transformed into pyruvate via serine; Mazelis 1980).
MDA, GSH-Px, Catalase, SOD, urea, creatinine, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and glutamate oxaloacetate
transaminase (GOT) were measured using commercial spectrophotometric analysis kits (Bio-Diagnostic Company, Giza, Egypt).
These authors found no effect on plasma total protein content, albumin, urea, creatinine, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxaloacetate
transaminase concentration, or total lipid content of new- born buffalo calves.
Abnormal liver function was noted when she was 5 days old (glutamate oxaloacetate
transaminase [GOT] 89 IU/L and glutamate pyruvate transaminase [GPT] 71 IU/L), and the levels elevated to GOT 298 IU/L and GPT 107 IU/L when she was 20 days old.