proper relatively simple, formed by (d) unpaired, subtriangular dorsal plate with a chromatically differentiated basis (dl), a large intermediate and strongly convex major part (d2) and a depressed apical and terminally rounded part (d3), (e) paired and mutually apposed elongate ventral plates closing the complex from ventral and lateral sides, and (f) two sub-cylindrical valvular projections between (d) and (e) provided with markedly long and strong macrotrichia.
parasitoids inserting their ovipositor
to place an egg into the fruit, flower head or gall) were recorded during discrete observation periods.
Newly emerged adults were critically examined and sexed by the presence or absence of a pointed ovipositor
A few specimens have dry, foamy secretions adhering to the tips of their ovipositors
Specifically, T umbilicatus owing to its longer ovipositor
(which is more than twice as long as those from the next largest species) has the ability to oviposit last in a gall and attack juvenile stages of the midge or the other parasitoids when the galls are more mature and have a greater diameter.
cautella pupae could be due to examination of the pupa with the ovipositor
by A mitys females (Nufio & Papaj 2001).
Upon release of parasitoids into each test cage, the number of females that landed on the oviposition unit (= females/visit) and also the number of females that inserted their ovipositor
into the oviposition unit (= ovipositor
insertions) were recorded (Garcia-Medel et al.
I also measured body length as the anterior-most part of head, excluding projections such as pronotal spurs, to the posterior-most part of abdomen, excluding projections such as cerci, ovipositors
or forceps (Sage 1982).
2001) and Sivinski & Aluja (2003) pointed out that the ovipositors
in the opiine species attacking Mexican fruit fly would have originally diverged due to the action of environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, seasonality, and/or host-fruit abundance and diversity.
Nocturnal field observations revealed beetles frequently walked down and up tree boles with females spending a great deal of time probing bark crevices with their ovipositors
and males moving relatively rapidly along tree boles with antennae held out in front of their bodies.
The scales which were penetrated by ovipositors
were marked and plants were stored in water trays for 2 months.
Anastrepha females have well-developed ovipositors
, inserting their eggs beneath the skin of host fruits, where larvae feed and develop within the flesh (White & Elson-Harris 1992).