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Franco and Maass (1996) found that when basketball fans were asked to attribute adjectives either to their fellow fans or fans of a rival club, 91% of positive traits were given to fellow fans and 68% of negative traits were given to the outgroup.
As related to our sample populations in the current study, Jackson and Hunsberger (1999) found members of the ingroup tend to have more negative attitudes, or exhibit greater prejudice, toward members of their outgroup than members of their ingroup.
Pettigrew (1998) posits four processes through which intergroup contact operates: a) learning about the outgroup (Eller & Abrams, 2003, 2004; Eller, Abrams, & Zimmermann, 2011), b) changing behavior (Eller & Abrams, 2003, 2004), c) generating affective ties by reducing intergroup anxiety (Paolini, Hewstone, Cairns, & Voci, 2004; Turner, Hewstone, & Voci, 2007; Turner, Hewstone, Voci, Paolini, & Christ, 2007) or by increasing self-disclosure (Turner et al.
We envisaged that the factors that best predict levels of outgroup prejudice among Christian, Muslim and secular youth might be related to individual pupils (their sex, age, friendships and religion), to where they live (social deprivation and ethnic make-up) and to their school (type of school, size, ethnic make-up, levels of social deprivation, academic achievement and the neighbourhood in which the school is located).
For example, it has been found that priming moral identity has led to increased inclusiveness to the ingroup, thereby decreasing negativity towards members of the outgroup (Reed & Aquino, 2003), but how does this compare to the consequences that the individual and social components of religious identity have on the evaluation of outgroup members?
Before further explaining the aims and merit of this research, the following sub-sections will lay a foundation for the study by outlining some of the major questions in the literature on implicit attitudes toward outgroup members.
In addition, Francophone undergraduates in the three settings rated how much they felt such migrants contributed to their own vitality and to outgroup vitality on items such as: vigour of the English and French language, socio-economic well-being, harmonious relations between the French/English communities, and the overall vitality of the French and English provincial communities.
For instance, an increased probability of automatically categorizing one's ingroup with positive adjectives does not imply that the same person will also categorize outgroup exemplars with negative adjectives with equal speed.
When a large proportion of an individual's friends are from a specific ethnic outgroup, we might even expect their memories and beliefs about the past to be more similar to the typical memories within that group than to the typical ingroup memories.
It becomes a dynamic of 'the people' versus 'the pharma industry,' where our industry becomes the faceless 'them'; what social identity theory would term 'the social outgroup,' where once the reputation is lost, it becomes almost impossible to course-correct and restore it.
strengthening ingroup ties) have been found to demonstrate more negative attitudes toward outgroup members and targets of prejudice.