Note the increase of GFAP immunoreactive cells in the outer plexiform layer
Thanks to this software, we are able to obtain, at macular level, macular total retina, retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer, inner plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer, outer plexiform layer
, outer nuclear layer, retinal pigmented epithelium, inner retinal layers, and outer retinal layer thickness measurements in all sectors as defined by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scheme (temporal inner, superior inner, nasal inner, inferior inner, temporal outer, superior outer, nasal outer, and inferior outer).
4: outer nuclear layer, 5: outer plexiform layer
, 6: inner nuclear layer, 7: inner plexiform layer, 8: layer of the ganglion cells, HIF1[alpha], 400X.
The image acquisition was followed by automatic intraretinal layer segmentation performed by the inbuilt Spectralis software to include the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), outer plexiform layer
(OPL), outer nuclear layer (ONL), retina pigment epithelium (RPE), total retinal volume (TRV), and total retina thickness (TRT) (Figure 1).
Exudates are usually located in or adjacent to the outer plexiform layer
because they are lipid residues that originate from damaged capillaries found in the inner retina, whereas drusen are deposits located between the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Bruch's membrane because the RPE is not functioning correctly.
As labeled, the following individual retinal layers were visualized: combined nerve fiber layer (NFL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), outer plexiform layer
(OPL), outer nuclear layer (ONL), external limiting membrane (ELM), photoreceptor inner segments (IS), photoreceptor inner segment ellipsoid (ISe), photoreceptor outer segments (OS), retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and choroid.
The deep retinal plexus (DRP) was segmented from the outer boundary of the IPL to the outer boundary of the outer plexiform layer
(OPL), which extends from 15 to 70 [micro]m below the IPL.
IS = inner segment, OS = outer segment, ONL = outer nuclear layer, INL = inner nuclear layer, OPL = outer plexiform layer
, INL = inner nuclear layer, IPL = inner plexiform layer, and GCL = ganglion cell layer.
To be able to assess the contrast and distinction between the individual retinal layers, the following layer boundaries were manually annotated by a single investigator (DP) in Adobe Photoshop version CS6 (Figure 2): boundaries between vitreous and nerve fiber layer (NFL), border between nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell layer (GCL), border between inner plexiform layer and inner nuclear layer (INL), border between inner nuclear layer and outer plexiform layer
(OPL), border between outer plexiform layer
and outer nuclear layer (ONL), and border between outer nuclear layer and external limiting membrane (ELM).
The outer retina is comprised of the outer plexiform layer
(OPL), outer nuclear layer (ONL), and photoreceptor layer (PRL).
Trauma+ P.fulgens group: Degeneration of cells in the inner and outer nuclear layers, degeneration of the inner and outer plexiform layers
, fibrous structures regular shedding of the ganglionic layer, no dilatation and no bleeding in the blood vessels of the ganglionic layer, H-E staining Bar 50 [micro]m,
Senile degenerative retinoschisis is an idiopathic splitting between the inner nuclear and outer plexiform layers
of the peripheral retina.