The images of the case (top images) show a slightly thicker photoreceptor outer nuclear layer
at the centre, surrounded by a ganglion cell layer that is thicker than at more peripheral locations (central ring of the retinal image), confirming the centration of this scan on the location of the anatomical fovea.
RNFL: retina nerve fiber layer; GCL: ganglion cell layer; IPL: inner plexiform layer; INL: inner nuclear layer; OPL: outer plexiform layer; ONL: outer nuclear layer
; RPE: retinal pigment epithelium; ORL: outer retina layer.
Caption: Figure 5: Spermidine-induced ultrastructural changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and outer nuclear layer
(ONL) of the rat retina.
Abbreviations: INL, inner nuclear layer; IS, inner segment; ONL, outer nuclear layer
; OS, outer segment; RPE, retinal pigment epithelium.
There was no significant difference at the outer nuclear layer
compared with controls.
TEM fields were recorded and printed at x 2216 (outer nuclear layer
) or x 26860 (outer segment layer) with the aid of grating replicas as external calibration standards.
The average retinal thickness in each of the 8 macular sectors was automatically calculated: retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), outer nuclear layer
(ONL), photoreceptor layer (PRL), and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE).
(7) developed a grading system according to the presence or absence of foveal pit and widening of the outer nuclear layer
and lengthening of outer segment at the fovea.
In our study, it was observed that the inner and outer nuclear layer
cellular integrity decreased after trauma, and the integrity of membranes deteriorated (Fig.
There are three hyper-reflective lines that may be visible posterior to the outer nuclear layer
; these represent the external limiting membrane (ELM), photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment junction (IS/OS junction), and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) (see Figure 6).
Primary damage occurring in the retinas of rats exposed to white light lies in the outer nuclear layer
(ONL)  although some damage can be observed in the inner nuclear layer (INL) .
Thanks to this software, we are able to obtain, at macular level, macular total retina, retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer, inner plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer, outer plexiform layer, outer nuclear layer
, retinal pigmented epithelium, inner retinal layers, and outer retinal layer thickness measurements in all sectors as defined by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scheme (temporal inner, superior inner, nasal inner, inferior inner, temporal outer, superior outer, nasal outer, and inferior outer).