outcrossing


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outcrossing

breeding with individuals other than close relatives.
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Outcrossing rate MLEs based on pollen indices for the three hybrid zones were roughly similar to those based on effective pollen frequencies only (above) and in all cases were within the support limits of the original estimates (Table 4).
Each honeybee was used to pollinate only a single raceme's open flowers of a given day, then discarded, as crosses were specific to a given plant (geitonogamy) or geographic source (outcrossing).
There have been a number of studies of natural PMGF in maize, where outcrossing is measured between a pollen source and phenotypically or genetically dissimilar receptors.
Conversely, if seeds are produced by outcrossing, the relatedness of emerging seedlings will be lower, owing to the potential for multiple paternity within fruits relative to selfed sibships.
Stand density influences outcrossing rate and growth of open-pollinated families of Eucalyptus globulus.
Outcrossing rates reported for cotton vary depending on the location, the time period, and how measurements are taken.
Although Kalmia latifolia is traditionally considered an outcrossing species, the frequency of delayed autonomous self-pollination ("selfing") has been shown to vary among populations.
and (5) Do outcrossing rates change as a result of florivory?
Second, if the species has a mixed mating system the self group in the self-versus-outcross approach is composed of individuals with a wide range of F-values: from 0.5, if the maternal plant was the product of random outcrossing, to 0.75 or higher, if the maternal plant was the product of selfing.
For example, USDA-APHIS foundation seed production guidelines suggest an isolation distance of 800 m for nonhybrid sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) (a primarily outcrossing species pollinated by insects), but only a "distance to prevent mechanical mixing" for soybean (a primarily inbreeding species) (USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, 2004).
In the present study we wish to address three questions: (1) Is high infection associated with high outcrossing? (2) Does infection reduce seed provisioning?
This produces the expectation of lower inbreeding depression in highly selfing populations relative to populations with higher outcrossing rates (e.g., Lande and Schemske 1985; D.