Thus, "dioecy" in this case seems to have evolved via monoecy with heterodichogamy (a known outbreeding
device) by increasing the temporal separation of the male and female phase (as postulated by Lloyd, 1979).
At the high density colony (AH), mated individuals were less similar genetically than expected; in other words, outbreeding
was the rule at AH.
Four pair crosses between a female of family G and a male of family W, and 9 pair crosses between a female of family W and a male of family G were outbreeding
crosses between the G and W families.
Crossing-distance effects in Delphinium nelsonii - outbreeding
and inbreeding depression in progeny fitness.
Alternatively, enhancing gene flow can also result in outbreeding
depression in locally adapted populations when these adaptations depend upon the maintenance of epistatic gene complexes.
This volume, paradoxically, is most valuable because it indicates how little we know about inbreeding and outbreeding
Guideline 6: To avoid declines in population fitness due to outbreeding
depression, populations that qualify as evolutionarily significant units (ESUs), subspecies, or closely related species should not be mixed.
Inbreeding and outbreeding
in captive populations of wild animal species.
Inbreeding depression is the decrement in fitness associated with inbreeding compared to outbreeding
. In self-compatible plants, this is generally measured as [Mathematical Expression Omitted], where [Mathematical Expression Omitted] is the average fitness of selfed progeny and [Mathematical Expression Omitted] is the average fitness of outcrossed progeny.
Questions such as the evolution of outbreeding
and inbreeding, of separate sexes, and sex ratio and sex allocation, which have been the subject of a good deal of recent theoretical and empirical research, are only superficially covered.
Genetic evidence of outbreeding
in the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus).
depression is a consistent concern (Templeton 1986).