were ground to expose the core via disc grinder along the transverse plane and subsequently polished with 1000 and 2000 grit silicon carbide sandpaper to achieve a smooth surface.
The samples were transported in the ice box to the laboratory where they were measured (fish length, cm), their otoliths
removed, cleaned and washed with distilled water.
Aging of river herring has been accomplished through reading annuli on whole otoliths
or on scales under a dissecting microscope; however, validation with known ages of individuals has not been documented for river herring (ASMFC (8)).
How does the microchemistry of cutthroat otoliths
compare with that of the water where they were caught?
The sagitta otoliths
were later extracted using dissecting forceps and washed with water and phosphate-free soap.
In addition an ENT specialist can do the specific Epley manoeuvres that helps reposition head and neck in a manner to allow the otoliths
to get back into the inner ear canal.
is a record of the growth of each individual," Llopiz said.
There are many different structures for fish age estimation, such as scales, otoliths
, vertebrae and opercular bones (Khan et al.
The paired t-test was applied in order to determine the differences between right and left otoliths
. All calculations were performed with MINITAB 17.0 statistical analysis software program.
are calcareous structures that act as statoliths in the internal ear of fish (Su, 2005) and are well known for their time-recording structure that is widely used in studies to assess age (Lowerre-Barbieri et al., 1994; Alvarez et al., 2007).
are laminated aragonite structures that have been used as a proxy of time series for environmental studies.