Such studies have suggested that osteoporosis and accordingly the Ca metabolism may be a risk factor for developing BPPV by affecting particularly the peripheral zone in otoconia
, which have a similar structure with bone tissue (3).
BPV can result from canalolithiasis where the otoconia
are freely floating in the duct of the semicircular canal or cupulolithiasis where the otoconia
are adherent to the cupula.
Crystals--micropar-tides of calcium, called otoconia
, that form in the balance canals of the inner ear--cause a condition called benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.
The term BPPV relates to otoconia
(microscopic calcium carbonate crystals) that are normally present in the utricle of the inner ear being displaced into the semi-circular canals (Barany 1921).
1) However, the fact that not all patients respond to the Epley maneuver (2) suggests that a different etiology is involved, and this led to the theory of cupulolithiasis, which holds that dislodged otoconia
irritate the cupula.
Dizziness most likely results from damage to the middle ear (vestibular apparatus), which includes the semicircular canals that respond to rotations and the otolithic organs that respond to sense linear accelerations with otoconia
Displacement of the otoconia
provides information on movement and helps the brain control your balance.
One of the most common causes is BPPV, a condition of the inner ear in which tiny calcium crystals called otoconia
are dislodged from their appropriate location in the ear, which causes a sensation of vertigo or spinning.
This finding supports the premise that estrogen deficiency may contribute to the development of BPV by weakening the bond of otoconia
to the utricle, they wrote.
BPPV is thought to be caused by displaced otoconia
or small calcium carbonate crystals derived from a structure at the base of the inner ear called the utride.
The hair cells of the otolithic organs are blanketed with a jelly-like layer studded with tiny calcium stones called otoconia
This loss of otoconia
occurs in the utricle but to a lesser degree than the saccule; this may be because the saccule is more susceptible due to its vertical position (Johnsson & Hawkins, 1972).