Conventional dental radiographs help us to identify pathological fractures, osteosclerotic
, osteolytic, reactive periosteal mixed lesions.
The LRRK1 are large multidomain proteins containing kinase, GTPase and multiple protein-protein interaction domains which play a role in the regulation of bone mass in human mutation of LRRK1  and lead to osteosclerotic
metaphysical dysplasia and causes a severe osteopetrosis.
(2) Histopathologically, the normally dense endochondral bone of the otic capsule is initially replaced by islands of vascular, demineralized Haversian bone that gradually becomes osteosclerotic
Osteoblasts of osteosclerotic
subchondral bone synthesize many pro-inflammatory cytokines that affect cartilage cells in the noncalcified cartilage through the micro-cracks in the ZCC.
Originally, it was known as "Lipid Granulomatosis" by Jakob Erdheim in 1930.1 It is a multifocal disorder characterized by osteosclerotic
lesions affecting the long bones.
Calvarial metastases are osteolytic or osteosclerotic
lesions seen on direct radiographs.
Afterwards, a CT scan of chest and abdomen revealed osteosclerotic
and osteolytic lesions similar to that of skull involving almost the whole skeleton (Figure 2) but not a single clear-cut primary tumor site could be located.
Plain radiography indicated osteoarthritic changes, represented by hip joint narrowing, osteosclerotic
changes in the subchondral bone, and osteophyte formation (Figure 1).
Bone lesions tend to be osteolytic in early stages and osteosclerotic
at later stages .
Mutations in FAM20C are associated with lethal osteosclerotic
bone dysplasia (Raine syndrome), highlighting a crucial molecule in bone development.
15), but the later phase of the disease displays osteosclerotic
Symptoms and clinical course vary in ECD, depending on the sites of involvement, but they usually include juxta-articular pain in the legs due to multiple diaphyseal osteosclerotic
lesions in the long bones that are almost always bilateral and symmetric.