osteosarcoma

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osteosarcoma

 [os″te-o-sahr-ko´mah]
osteogenic sarcoma. adj., adj osteosarco´matous.

os·te·o·gen·ic sar·co·ma

[MIM*259500]
the most common and malignant of bone sarcomas, which arises from bone-forming cells and affects chiefly the ends of long bones; its greatest incidence is in the age group between 10 and 25 years.
Synonym(s): osteosarcoma

osteosarcoma

(ŏs′tē-ō-sär-kō′mə)
n. pl. osteosarco·mata (-mə-tə) or osteosarco·mas
A malignant bone tumor. Also called osteogenic sarcoma.

osteosarcoma

A high-grade sarcoma which arises in the metaphysis of long bones and produces malignant osteoid.

Epidemiology
Osteosarcomas comprise 2–3% of paediatric malignancies and 20% of all bone cancers; frequency 4–5/106 age range, 5–50 (60% under age 25), more common in males.

Clinical findings
Pain, swelling of extremity, pathological fractures.

Location
Metaphysis of long bones (distal femur, proximal tibia, proximal humerus); less commonly in flat bones, facial, pelvic, scapula, spine, short bones.

Predisposing factors
Usually arises de novo, but may be due to radiation, Paget’s disease of bone, linked to chemotherapy (alkylating agents), pre-existing benign bone lesions (fibrous dysplasia, osteochondromatosis, chondromatosis), foreign bodies (e.g. orthopaedic hardware).

Imaging
Variable sclerosis and osteolysis, Codman’s triangle.

Management
Pre-op chemotherapy; resect.

Metastases
Lungs, lymph nodes, other bones.

Prognosis
Very poor; better if 95% of the tumour is necrotic.

Osteosarcoma types
-Conventional
• Osteosarcoma NOS (not otherwise specified)
• Chondroblastic
• Fibroblastic (osteofibrosarcoma)
• Central osteosarcoma (conventional central osteosarcoma, medullary osteosarcoma)
• Intracortical osteosarcoma
-High-grade superficial
-Low-grade central
-Parosteal (juxtacortical)
-Periosteal (chondroblastic)
-Secondary
-Small cell
-Telangiectatic
-Microscopic variants
• Chondroblastic osteosarcoma
• Fibroblastic osteosarcoma
• Giant cell rich osteosarcoma
• Osteoblastic osteosarcoma (osteogenic osteosarcoma)
• Small-cell osteosarcoma
• Telangiectatic osteosarcoma

os·te·o·gen·ic sar·co·ma

(os'tē-ō-jen'ik sahr-kō'mă)
The most common and malignant of bone sarcomas, which arises from bone-forming cells and chiefly affects the ends of long bones; its greatest incidence is in the 10-25-year-old age group.
Synonym(s): osteosarcoma.

osteosarcoma

A highly malignant form of bone cancer that affects mostly young people between the ages of 10 and 20. The tumour is commonest at the lower end of the thigh bone (femur) or the upper end of the shin bone (tibia) causing swelling and sometimes pain, local warmth and tenderness. A characteristic ‘sun-ray’ effect of bone spicules is often visible on X-ray. Early spread to other parts of the body (METASTASIS) is common and unexplained pain or swelling at either of these sites should always be investigated without delay. In confirmed cases, urgent treatment is necessary if life is to be saved.

os·te·o·gen·ic sar·co·ma

(os'tē-ō-jen'ik sahr-kō'mă) [MIM*259500]
Most common and malignant of bone sarcomas, which arises from bone-forming cells and affects chiefly ends of long bones.
Synonym(s): osteosarcoma.
References in periodicals archive ?
Four osteosarcoma cell lines present different cell morphologies with epithelial morphology for U2OS, Saos-2, HOS, and fibroblast morphology for MG63.
A known patient or family history of p53 germline mutation increases the risk of osteosarcoma. Patients with multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE) and Ollier's or Mafuci's syndromes have a significantly increased risk of developing chondrosarcoma.
Given the very similar recurrence rates already discussed above, it comes as no surprise that the 5-year event-free and overall survival rates are also similar to those observed in other series which included both localized and primary metastatic osteosarcomas [14, 26, 38].
Noaman, "Role of immunohistochemical cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) and osteocalcin in differentiating between osteoblastomas and osteosarcomas," Malaysian Journal of Pathology, vol.
Our patient's tumor therefore belongs to the category of the osteosarcomas that arise in the spongeous bone of the stalk, has no relationship with the cartilaginous cap, shows no thickening of the cap, and no neoplastic cartilaginous components.
Limb-salvage surgery is the standard procedure for the treatment of appendicular osteosarcoma. Determination of the tumor boundary is essential for surgical planning.
Among 550 patients, 250 had an osteosarcoma, 200 had Ewing sarcoma, 50 had chondrosarcoma, and 50 had soft tissue sarcoma (STS).
The mass contained cystic spaces filled with blood but no further residual osteosarcoma was identified and the sentinel lymph node was negative.
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of bone with a peak incidence in adolescents and young adults.
Osteosarcoma of the pelvis, including the chondroblastic subtype, is associated with worse overall survival compared to patients with extremity osteosarcoma.