osteosarcoma

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osteosarcoma

 [os″te-o-sahr-ko´mah]
osteogenic sarcoma. adj., adj osteosarco´matous.

os·te·o·gen·ic sar·co·ma

[MIM*259500]
the most common and malignant of bone sarcomas, which arises from bone-forming cells and affects chiefly the ends of long bones; its greatest incidence is in the age group between 10 and 25 years.
Synonym(s): osteosarcoma

osteosarcoma

/os·teo·sar·co·ma/ (os″te-o-sahr-ko´mah) a malignant primary neoplasm of bone composed of a malignant connective tissue stroma with evidence of malignant osteoid, bone, or cartilage formation; it is subclassified as osteoblastic, chondroblastic, or fibroblastic.osteosarco´matous
parosteal osteosarcoma  a variant consisting of a slowly growing tumor resembling cancellous bone but arising from the cortex of the bone and slowly growing outward to surround the bone.
periosteal osteosarcoma  a variant of osteochondroma consisting of a soft, lobulated tumor arising from the periosteum of a long bone and growing outward.
small-cell osteosarcoma  a variant of osteosarcoma resembling Ewing's sarcoma, with areas of osteoid and sometimes chondroid formation.

osteosarcoma

(ŏs′tē-ō-sär-kō′mə)
n. pl. osteosarco·mata (-mə-tə) or osteosarco·mas
A malignant bone tumor. Also called osteogenic sarcoma.

osteosarcoma

[os′tē·ō′särkō′mə]
Etymology: Gk, osteon + sarx, flesh, oma
a malignant tumor of the bone, composed of anaplastic cells derived from mesenchyme. It is the most common type of primary malignant bone tumor, accounting for 35% of such malignancies. It occurs most often in the distal femur. Metastasis to the lung occurs more often in males than in females. It occurs most frequently between the second and fourth decade of life. Also called osteogenic sarcoma.
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Osteosarcoma

osteosarcoma

A high-grade sarcoma which arises in the metaphysis of long bones and produces malignant osteoid.

Epidemiology
Osteosarcomas comprise 2–3% of paediatric malignancies and 20% of all bone cancers; frequency 4–5/106 age range, 5–50 (60% under age 25), more common in males.

Clinical findings
Pain, swelling of extremity, pathological fractures.

Location
Metaphysis of long bones (distal femur, proximal tibia, proximal humerus); less commonly in flat bones, facial, pelvic, scapula, spine, short bones.

Predisposing factors
Usually arises de novo, but may be due to radiation, Paget’s disease of bone, linked to chemotherapy (alkylating agents), pre-existing benign bone lesions (fibrous dysplasia, osteochondromatosis, chondromatosis), foreign bodies (e.g. orthopaedic hardware).

Imaging
Variable sclerosis and osteolysis, Codman’s triangle.

Management
Pre-op chemotherapy; resect.

Metastases
Lungs, lymph nodes, other bones.

Prognosis
Very poor; better if 95% of the tumour is necrotic.

Osteosarcoma types
-Conventional
• Osteosarcoma NOS (not otherwise specified)
• Chondroblastic
• Fibroblastic (osteofibrosarcoma)
• Central osteosarcoma (conventional central osteosarcoma, medullary osteosarcoma)
• Intracortical osteosarcoma
-High-grade superficial
-Low-grade central
-Parosteal (juxtacortical)
-Periosteal (chondroblastic)
-Secondary
-Small cell
-Telangiectatic
-Microscopic variants
• Chondroblastic osteosarcoma
• Fibroblastic osteosarcoma
• Giant cell rich osteosarcoma
• Osteoblastic osteosarcoma (osteogenic osteosarcoma)
• Small-cell osteosarcoma
• Telangiectatic osteosarcoma

os·te·o·gen·ic sar·co·ma

(os'tē-ō-jen'ik sahr-kō'mă)
The most common and malignant of bone sarcomas, which arises from bone-forming cells and chiefly affects the ends of long bones; its greatest incidence is in the 10-25-year-old age group.
Synonym(s): osteosarcoma.

osteosarcoma

A highly malignant form of bone cancer that affects mostly young people between the ages of 10 and 20. The tumour is commonest at the lower end of the thigh bone (femur) or the upper end of the shin bone (tibia) causing swelling and sometimes pain, local warmth and tenderness. A characteristic ‘sun-ray’ effect of bone spicules is often visible on X-ray. Early spread to other parts of the body (METASTASIS) is common and unexplained pain or swelling at either of these sites should always be investigated without delay. In confirmed cases, urgent treatment is necessary if life is to be saved.

osteosarcoma

commonest malignant neoplasm of bone, tending to affect ends of long bones

os·te·o·gen·ic sar·co·ma

(os'tē-ō-jen'ik sahr-kō'mă) [MIM*259500]
Most common and malignant of bone sarcomas, which arises from bone-forming cells and affects chiefly ends of long bones.
Synonym(s): osteosarcoma.

osteosarcoma (os´tēōsärkō´mə),

n a malignant neoplasm of the bone-forming tissues.

osteosarcoma

bone-producing malignant tumor; common in dogs and cats, but rare in other species. Dogs of large breeds are more frequently affected and the most common sites are distal humerus or femur and proximal radius or tibia. Lameness, swelling and rapid metastasis to the lungs are usual features.
References in periodicals archive ?
Osteoblastic osteosarcoma occurring at an atypical age, in an extremely rare location, and with an uncommon radiographic appearance at initial presentation.
The study expands on previous work in Basilico's and Mansukhani's molecular oncology laboratories at NYU Langone and on earlier work by Upal Basu Roy, PhD, MPH, the lead study investigator, who found that Sox2 was an essential transcription factor for the maintenance of osteosarcoma stem cells.
Osteosarcoma is a mesenchymal malignancy in which the neoplastic cells synthesize and secrete the organic components of bone matrix.
This study evaluated the clinical stage of osteosarcoma at presentation to our tumour unit.
A phase II study of cisplatin, ifosfamide and epirubicin combination chemotherapy in adults with nonmetastatic and extremity osteosarcomas.
This case is unique in that a transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) resulted in complete resection of the sarcoma component of the bladder, with an ultimate radical cystoprostatectomy specimen showing no osteosarcoma, but only residual carcinoma in situ (CIS).
We would like to see individuals avoid this drug until there's evidence that it doesn't cause osteosarcoma," Public Citizen spokesperson Larry Sasich, Pharm.
The trial consists of 4 cohorts of at least 3 patients each with an expanded group of at least 12 patients, including at least 6 with osteosarcoma, receiving the highest dose.
For example, a select group of lesions is eccentrically located and involves the cortex (osteoid osteoma, parosteal osteosarcoma, and nonossify ing fibroma) (Figure 2).
Review of the histology (figure 2, A) suggested a low-grade malignancy, and the diagnosis of a low-grade chondromyxoid neoplasm was made, with a differential diagnosis of chondromyxoid fibroma, chondrosarcoma, and chondroblastic osteosarcoma.
11-14) Recently, molecular elements from this pathway were also shown to strongly correlate with neoplastic progression of other solid tumors, including neuroblastoma, melanoma, glioblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and osteosarcoma.
In rat studies, teriparatide caused an increase in the incidence of osteosarcoma, but no cases of osteosarcoma have been reported in human studies.