osteosarcoma


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to osteosarcoma: chondrosarcoma

osteosarcoma

 [os″te-o-sahr-ko´mah]
osteogenic sarcoma. adj., adj osteosarco´matous.

os·te·o·gen·ic sar·co·ma

[MIM*259500]
the most common and malignant of bone sarcomas, which arises from bone-forming cells and affects chiefly the ends of long bones; its greatest incidence is in the age group between 10 and 25 years.
Synonym(s): osteosarcoma

osteosarcoma

(ŏs′tē-ō-sär-kō′mə)
n. pl. osteosarco·mata (-mə-tə) or osteosarco·mas
A malignant bone tumor. Also called osteogenic sarcoma.

osteosarcoma

A high-grade sarcoma which arises in the metaphysis of long bones and produces malignant osteoid.

Epidemiology
Osteosarcomas comprise 2–3% of paediatric malignancies and 20% of all bone cancers; frequency 4–5/106 age range, 5–50 (60% under age 25), more common in males.

Clinical findings
Pain, swelling of extremity, pathological fractures.

Location
Metaphysis of long bones (distal femur, proximal tibia, proximal humerus); less commonly in flat bones, facial, pelvic, scapula, spine, short bones.

Predisposing factors
Usually arises de novo, but may be due to radiation, Paget’s disease of bone, linked to chemotherapy (alkylating agents), pre-existing benign bone lesions (fibrous dysplasia, osteochondromatosis, chondromatosis), foreign bodies (e.g. orthopaedic hardware).

Imaging
Variable sclerosis and osteolysis, Codman’s triangle.

Management
Pre-op chemotherapy; resect.

Metastases
Lungs, lymph nodes, other bones.

Prognosis
Very poor; better if 95% of the tumour is necrotic.

Osteosarcoma types
-Conventional
• Osteosarcoma NOS (not otherwise specified)
• Chondroblastic
• Fibroblastic (osteofibrosarcoma)
• Central osteosarcoma (conventional central osteosarcoma, medullary osteosarcoma)
• Intracortical osteosarcoma
-High-grade superficial
-Low-grade central
-Parosteal (juxtacortical)
-Periosteal (chondroblastic)
-Secondary
-Small cell
-Telangiectatic
-Microscopic variants
• Chondroblastic osteosarcoma
• Fibroblastic osteosarcoma
• Giant cell rich osteosarcoma
• Osteoblastic osteosarcoma (osteogenic osteosarcoma)
• Small-cell osteosarcoma
• Telangiectatic osteosarcoma

os·te·o·gen·ic sar·co·ma

(os'tē-ō-jen'ik sahr-kō'mă)
The most common and malignant of bone sarcomas, which arises from bone-forming cells and chiefly affects the ends of long bones; its greatest incidence is in the 10-25-year-old age group.
Synonym(s): osteosarcoma.

osteosarcoma

A highly malignant form of bone cancer that affects mostly young people between the ages of 10 and 20. The tumour is commonest at the lower end of the thigh bone (femur) or the upper end of the shin bone (tibia) causing swelling and sometimes pain, local warmth and tenderness. A characteristic ‘sun-ray’ effect of bone spicules is often visible on X-ray. Early spread to other parts of the body (METASTASIS) is common and unexplained pain or swelling at either of these sites should always be investigated without delay. In confirmed cases, urgent treatment is necessary if life is to be saved.

os·te·o·gen·ic sar·co·ma

(os'tē-ō-jen'ik sahr-kō'mă) [MIM*259500]
Most common and malignant of bone sarcomas, which arises from bone-forming cells and affects chiefly ends of long bones.
Synonym(s): osteosarcoma.
References in periodicals archive ?
To evaluate clinical outcomes of patients with osteosarcoma at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH), a tertiary hospital in SA, and compare these with similar studies from the developing world to evaluate factors contributing to any differences encountered.
Exner et al., "Prognostic factors in high-grade osteosarcoma of the extremities or trunk: an analysis of 1,702 patients treated on neoadjuvant cooperative osteosarcoma study group protocols," Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol.
Weaver et al., "Osteocalcin and osteonectin immunoreactivity in the diagnosis of osteosarcoma," American Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol.
Chae, "Cutaneous osteosarcoma arising from a burn scar," Skeletal Radiology, vol.
We can therefore not certainly state that the osteosarcoma arose from the osteochondroma in our patient but it seems more likely that it arose as an independent tumor in the stalk of the osteochondroma not the cap where malignant transformation usually occurs.
In conjunction, the data from the company's clinical study in 18 client-owned dogs with osteosarcoma suggests that the immunotherapy may be able to delay or prevent metastatic disease and prolong overall survival in dogs.
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor and occurs with greatest frequency in the appendicular skeleton.[sup][5],[6] Preferred management involves limb-sparing surgery following neoadjuvant chemotherapy.[sup][7],[8],[9],[10],[11] Studies have demonstrated that the surgical margin is closely associated with local recurrence.[sup][12],[13],[14] Presurgical planning is very important to achieve adequate margins.
Copy number gains in EGFR and copy number losses in PTEN are common events in osteosarcoma tumors.
Comportamiento epidemiologico del osteosarcoma en la poblacion mexicana entre 2005 y 2014.
Simultaneous sites of disease may also represent more concerning pathology such as osteosarcoma with skip lesions or other metastatic bone disease.
Osteosarcoma cells and BM-MSCs were cultured both as separate and co-cultures under normoxic and hypoxic conditions.
"But osteosarcoma is very clever and things went downhill very rapidly."