When osteoprogenitor cells
attach to a scaffold implanted at the injury site, they release enzymes that snip through the mesh, destroying the scaffolding.
28) The latter characteristic can be achieved by supplementing other types of grafts with fresh autologous marrow as a source of osteoprogenitor cells
, which might be of clinical value in birds.
Carey proposed four main theories of its development: 1) displacement of bony fragments into the soft tissue with subsequent proliferation, 2) detachment of periosteal fragments into the surround- ing tissue with proliferation of osteoprogenitor cells
, 3) migration of subperiosteal osteoprogenitor cells
into surrounding soft tissue, through periosteal perforation induced by trauma, and 4) metaplasia of extraosseous cells exposed to bone morphogenic proteins derived from the lysis of bone fragments displaced within the soft tissue during traumatic injury.
PNBF results from stimulation of the mesenchymal stem cells of the cambium layer of the periosteum, which become osteoprogenitor cells
and differentiate into osteoblasts.
Specifically, osteoconductivity refers to material in which the graft supports the attachment of new osteoblasts and osteoprogenitor cells
that form an interconnected structure that supports the growth of new bone.
Because PRP enhances osteoprogenitor cells
in the host bone and in bone grafts (Marx et al.
Recently reported scientific findings from a study titled "Extracorporeal Shock Wave Stimulation of Osteoprogenitor Cells
," presented at the 2009 International Bone-Tissue-Engineering Congress ("Bone-Tec"), indicate that this technology can create autogenous sources of stem cells for bone tissue engineering and repair.
At a fracture site, presumably the BMP is released at a higher concentration because of the secretion by the transformed inflammatory cells into osteoprogenitor cells
and upregulation of BMP from the released cytokines at the fracture site.
These results strongly suggest that the collagen-GAG-coated HA has the capacity to provide a major scaffold for osteoprogenitor cells
The formation of bone involves a complex series of events, include the proliferation and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells
and result eventually in the formation of a mineralized extracellular matrix.