That is, osteoperiostitis is more frequent in the peak-LIA, while cribra orbitalia and porotic hyperostosis are more frequent, to varying degrees, in the MCA/LIA.
Males have comparatively more osteoperiostitis, less cribra orbitalia, and less porotic hyperostosis in the peak-LIA than females.
The difference between the MCA/LIA and peak-LIA in lower limb osteoperiostitis increases with age.
This increase, along with increases in osteoperiostitis, may indicate a general degradation of the early childhood environment and increased exposure to pathogens in the peak-LIA.
The types of malnutrition (anemia, vitamin C deficiency) represented by cribra orbitalia could make these individuals less resistant to infectious diseases even as adults, causing these individuals to die before osteoperiostitis can form on the skeleton.
This certainly could explain nutritional and stress indicators, with the exception of osteoperiostitis, that show poor health in the MCA/LIA as compared to the peak-LIA.
Rates of osteoperiostitis are high in the peak-LIA, and multiple-episode enamel hypoplasias, which are permanent markers of stress during early life, also increase.
In Bone Loss and Osteoperiostitis: An Anthropological Perspective, edited by Sabrina C.