Cancellous bones showed a mixture of osteonecrotic
changes, including empty lacunae and a fibrous marrow cavity, along with bone tissue consisting of osteocyte-filled lacunae.
IL-33, as a proinflammatory cytokine, has been proved to be specifically released from osteonecrotic
Wang et al., "Controlled-release of rhBMP-2 carriers in the regeneration of osteonecrotic
bone," Biomaterials, vol.
Chronic painful secondary arthritis develops from progressive flattening and collapse of the femoral head (Figure 1, 3), The prevalence of humeral head osteonecrosis on radiographs was 28 percent in one population of patients; in another study, 48 percent of adults with SCD-SS were found to have radiographic abnormalities suggestive of healed and remodeled osteonecrotic
The 235 patients with osteonecrosis had a collective 382 affected joints at the time of their first osteonecrosis diagnosis, with an additional 160 joints becoming osteonecrotic
The most commonly used classification for osteonecrosis of the femoral head was developed by Ficat and Arlet and is based on radiographic changes; 95% of the patients with less than 30% osteonecrotic
lesion in the femoral head are asymptomatic for more than 5 years; however, the symptoms start with lesion increasing by 50%.
Also the number of osteonecrotic
changed osteocytes increases after glucocorticoid treatment (Figure 2).
Core decompression of the osteonecrotic
The proximal pole of the lunate is likely to become osteonecrotic
due to its limited anastomosis of arterial supplying and the presence of only terminal arterial branches supply the proximal pole.
Patients who develop osteonecrosis should be comprehensively managed to include elimination of trauma, avoidance of removable dental prosthesis if the denture-bearing area is within the osteonecrotic
field, assurance of adequate nutritional intake, and discontinuation of tobacco and alcohol use.
Fate of very small asymptomatic stage-I osteonecrotic
lesions of the hip.
What is not clear from their findings is whether the osteonecrotic
cases reported included only athletes or if the respondent answered by including all patients treated with OCS over their entire clinical practice.