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sarcoma[sahr-ko´mah] (pl. sarcomas, sarco´mata.)
A tumor, often highly malignant, composed of cells derived from connective tissue such as bone, cartilage, muscle, blood vessel, or lymphoid tissue; sarcomas usually develop rapidly and metastasize through the lymph channels. Different types are named for the specific tissue they affect: fibrosarcoma in fibrous connective tissue; lymphosarcoma in lymphoid tissues; osteosarcoma in bone; chondrosarcoma in cartilage; rhabdosarcoma in muscle; and liposarcoma in fat cells. adj., adj sarco´matous.
Abernethy's sarcoma a malignant fatty tumor occurring mainly on the trunk.
alveolar soft part sarcoma one with a reticulated fibrous stroma enclosing groups of sarcoma cells enclosed in alveoli walled with connective tissue.
botryoid sarcoma (sarcoma botryoi´des) an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma arising in submucosal tissue, usually in the upper vagina, cervix uteri, or bladder neck in young children and infants, presenting grossly as a polypoid grapelike structure.
endometrial stromal sarcoma a pale, polypoid, fleshy, malignant tumor of the endometrial stroma.
Ewing's sarcoma a malignant tumor of the bone that arises in medullary tissue, usually found in cylindrical bones, with pain, fever, and leukocytosis as prominent symptoms; called also Ewing's tumor.
giant cell sarcoma a malignant form of giant cell tumor of bone.
granulocytic sarcoma chloroma.
immunoblastic sarcoma of B cells an aggressive B-cell lymphoma believed to arise from transformed interfollicular B lymphocytes, which in many cases is associated with a preexisting immunologic disorder, e.g., Sjögren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, or Hashimoto's thyroiditis, or with an immunocompromised state.
immunoblastic sarcoma of T cells a group of T-cell lymphomas comprising tumors derived from T lymphocytes in the paracortical area arising from a mixture of small lymphocytes and many large transformed cells; the latter are characterized by one or more small but distinctly eosinophilic nucleoli.
Kaposi sarcoma a multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by bluish red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet; the nodules slowly increase in size and number and spread to more proximal sites. Tumors often remain confined to skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. The condition occurs endemically in certain parts of Central Africa and Central and Eastern Europe, and a particularly virulent and disseminated form occurs in immunocompromised patients such as transplant recipients and those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Human herpesvirus 8 has been implicated as a causative agent.
lymphatic sarcoma diffuse lymphoma.
osteogenic sarcoma a malignant primary tumor of bone composed of a malignant connective tissue stroma with evidence of osteoid, bone, and/or cartilage formation; depending upon the dominant component, classified as osteoblastic, fibroblastic, or chondroblastic.
pseudo–Kaposi sarcoma unilateral subacute to chronic dermatitis, often with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, occurring in association with underlying arteriovenous fistula, which closely resembles Kaposi sarcoma both clinically and histologically.
reticulum cell sarcoma histiocytic lymphoma.
the most common and malignant of bone sarcomas, which arises from bone-forming cells and affects chiefly the ends of long bones; its greatest incidence is in the age group between 10 and 25 years.
osteosarcomaA high-grade sarcoma which arises in the metaphysis of long bones and produces malignant osteoid.
Osteosarcomas comprise 2–3% of paediatric malignancies and 20% of all bone cancers; frequency 4–5/106 age range, 5–50 (60% under age 25), more common in males.
Pain, swelling of extremity, pathological fractures.
Metaphysis of long bones (distal femur, proximal tibia, proximal humerus); less commonly in flat bones, facial, pelvic, scapula, spine, short bones.
Usually arises de novo, but may be due to radiation, Paget’s disease of bone, linked to chemotherapy (alkylating agents), pre-existing benign bone lesions (fibrous dysplasia, osteochondromatosis, chondromatosis), foreign bodies (e.g. orthopaedic hardware).
Variable sclerosis and osteolysis, Codman’s triangle.
Pre-op chemotherapy; resect.
Lungs, lymph nodes, other bones.
Very poor; better if 95% of the tumour is necrotic.
• Osteosarcoma NOS (not otherwise specified)
• Fibroblastic (osteofibrosarcoma)
• Central osteosarcoma (conventional central osteosarcoma, medullary osteosarcoma)
• Intracortical osteosarcoma
• Chondroblastic osteosarcoma
• Fibroblastic osteosarcoma
• Giant cell rich osteosarcoma
• Osteoblastic osteosarcoma (osteogenic osteosarcoma)
• Small-cell osteosarcoma
• Telangiectatic osteosarcoma
os·te·o·gen·ic sar·co·ma(os'tē-ō-jen'ik sahr-kō'mă)
The most common and malignant of bone sarcomas, which arises from bone-forming cells and chiefly affects the ends of long bones; its greatest incidence is in the 10-25-year-old age group.
osteogenic sarcomaSee OSTEOSARCOMA.
os·te·o·gen·ic sar·co·ma(os'tē-ō-jen'ik sahr-kō'mă) [MIM*259500]
Most common and malignant of bone sarcomas, which arises from bone-forming cells and affects chiefly ends of long bones.
derived from or composed of any tissue concerned in bone growth or repair.
osteogenic precursor cell
a tumor, often highly malignant, composed of cells derived from connective tissue such as bone and cartilage, muscle, blood vessel or lymphoid tissue. These tumors usually develop rapidly and metastasize through the lymph vessels.
The different types of sarcomas are named after the specific tissue they affect: fibrosarcoma—in fibrous connective tissue; lymphosarcoma—in lymphoid tissues; osteosarcoma—in bone; chondrosarcoma—in cartilage; rhabdosarcoma—in muscle; liposarcoma—in fat cells.
feline post-traumatic sarcoma
seen in cats, usually following injury from a penetrating injury to the eye. An orbit-destructive and sometimes metastasizing spindle-cell sarcoma develops months or years later.
feline vaccine-associated sarcoma
a rare malignancy in cats occurring in sites typically used for the injection of vaccines. There is an often rapidly growing, soft tissue swelling most commonly located over the cervical-interscapular region or thigh, which is a highly invasive tumor, usually a fibrosarcoma. Treatment by surgical resection, radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy may not be successful. In 1996, a Feline Vaccine-Associated Sarcoma Task Force was formed to investigate the condition and to issue guidelines for administration of vaccines and for the management of injection site masses and tumors. A causal relationship with rabies and feline leukemia virus vaccines has been found. Called also feline injection site sarcoma.
giant cell sarcoma
a malignant form of giant cell tumor of bone.
mast cell sarcoma
see mast cell tumor.
see feline post-traumatic sarcoma (above).
reticulum cell sarcoma
an old term for a form of malignant lymphoma, histiocytic lymphosarcoma, in which the dominant cell type is thought to be derived from histiocytic or macrophage origin. There is increasing evidence, however, that this neoplasm arises from transformed lymphocytes or immunoblasts.
see rous sarcoma.
transmissible venereal sarcoma
see feline sarcoma virus.