[16,17] Both of these have odontogenic as well as osteogenic
von Kossa staining indicated the osteogenic
differentiation by calcium deposition.
differentiation is divided into four stages: cellular commitment, proliferation, matrix maturation, and mineralization.
Two-dimensional scaffolds for vibration studies are often membranes coated with osteogenic
proteins or minerals [15, 16, 51].
Distinct cell types in different stages of osteogenic
differentiation form distinct niches for hematopoietic cell (Figure 1).
differentiation was induced in MSCs cultured for 21 days, the expression of osteogenesis-associated proteins RUNX2, OPN, and OCN, was analyzed with Western blotting.
From the experimental point of view, in vitro functional studies demonstrated that in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, miR-382 is able to significantly enhance osteogenic
Quantitative Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) Assay of Osteogenic
differentiation of hMSC was induced using MEMa (GIBCO, Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) containing FBS (10%, Atlanta Biologicals, Lawrenceville, GA, USA), ascorbate-2-phosphate (200 mM, Sigma-Aldrich, St.
After 21 days of culture in osteogenic
medium, AD-MSCs formed mineralized nodules (Figure 1) and an increase in the relative expression of gene transcripts for osterix, bone sialoprotein, and osteocalcin were observed (Figure 1).
Previously in our in vitro study, we found that the treatment with TNF-[alpha] at lower concentrations mainly activates the MAPK family members in osteoblasts, which eventually promotes osteogenic
differentiation and enhances expression levels of osteogenic
transcription factors and bone marker genes.
Kornicka et al., "Metformin Decreases Reactive Oxygen Species, Enhances Osteogenic
Properties of Adipose-Derived Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro, and Increases Bone Density In Vivo," Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol.