The effects of coffee consumption and cigarette smoke inhalation on the bone repair process and osseous integration of biomaterials have been little investigated.
Rats in the CC group exhibited the least degree of bone formation in the bone slit (Figure 1) and osseous integration of the DHA implant (Figure 2 and Table 1).
The present study shows that cigarette smoke inhalation and coffee consumption interfered substantially negatively on the bone formation and osseous integration of the DHA implant in the CC group.
The influence of contaminants and surface treatments of titanium implants (like alumina-blasting, acid etching, anodization, hydroxyapatite coating,) on osseous integration
has been extensively studied .