There are many challenges associated with the diagnosis of injuries to the craniocervical junction, not the least of which is the elaborate osseoligamentous
anatomy and its complicated radiographic projection.
lumbar spine is inherently unstable (40, 41) and is dependent on the integrated function of the muscles (especially paraspinal muscles) and neural subsystems for stability and movement (42, 43).
The L4-L5 osseoligamentous
canal area is also diminished in comparison to the superior L3-L4 level.
Coracoid fractures are uncommon injuries, in isolation or in association with other osseoligamentous
injuries about the shoulder girdle, and comprise 3% to 13% of all scapular fractures and 5% of all shoulder fractures.