Blood pressure reduction, osmotherapy, ultra haemolytic therapy were not found to be proven methods of benefit to patients.
Another treatment protocol is aimed to keep the intracranial pressure below 20 mm Hg through osmotherapy and controlled hyperventilation.
Corticosteroids and osmotherapy
with mannitol, glycerol, or hypertonic saline are currently considered to be effective medical therapy.
ICP can be reduced by supportive measures like head up and oxygenation, symptomatic measures like controlling BP, glucose level, supplemented measures like giving osmotherapy
, specific measures like hyperventilation, sedation with barbiturate and surgery if not responded to this 5-S therapy10,11,16.
(dehydration) with hypertonic solutions could be beneficial in the management of inflammatory joint diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, either by prolonged soaking or by vapour pressure techniques," he noted.
According to theory, patients needed medical treatment with labetalol, nitroprusside or hydralazine for blood pressure control, Mannitol or osmotherapy
for increase ICP, fluid management for hydroelectrical balance, phenytoin for prevention of seizures and also control of body temperature and other symptomatic treatments with Algocalmin Metoclopromide, Quamatel, Vit b complexes etc.
The principle behind osmotherapy
in TBI management is to increase the osmotic gradient across the blood/brain barrier and encourage fluid egress from the brain.
Medical treatment including osmotherapy
, for treatment of deteriorating patients with malignant brain oedema after large cerebral infarction is unproven (Class III, level C).
Other performance evaluations that are currently being conducted specifically in the NTSICU include collecting data on total enteral nutrition guidelines to measure the incidence of aspiration with gastric feeding and evaluating a newly developed osmotherapy
Understand the differential diagnosis of an unexplained, increased osmolal gap, including alcohol or glycol ingestion, alcoholic or diabetic ketosis or ketoacidosis, and osmotherapy
for ophthalmic disease in dogs and cats.
The most common therapies are prescribed off-label, such as anti-hypertensive agents (labetalol and nicardipine), hemostatic agents (vitamin K and rfVIIa), antiepileptic drugs (phenytoin and lorazepam) and osmotherapy
(mannitol 20%) which provide symptomatic treatment but lack superior safety and efficacy.