osmolyte


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osmolyte

(oz'mo-lit?, os') [ ²osmo + -lyte]
An organic solute, esp. one that helps cells adapt to dehydration or fluid excess. Osmolytes are generated within cells in response to osmotic stresses. Examples include glutamine, glycine, inositol, sorbitol, and taurine. Synonym: idiogenic osmole
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Due to its osmolyte characteristics, glutamate promotes fluid shifts into the astrocytes, causing cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure, and possibly causing the development of hepatic encephalopathy (Prakash & Mullen, 2010).
Creatine is thought to provide important neuro-protection for the brain through enhancing energy metabolism in brain tissue, promoting antioxidant activities, improving cerebral vasculation (improved brain circulation) and acting as a brain cell osmolyte that can protect the brain against hyper-osmotic shock (Andres et al., 2008).
Osmolyte accumulation in xerophytes as a response to environmental stress.
Unlike synthetic betaine, natural betaine acts as an osmolyte, improving intestinal health and reducing the negative impact of heat-stress on animal production.
Ammonia leads to an increase in intracellular glutamine, which acts as an intracellular osmolyte causing astrocyte swelling (Pugliese et al., 2007) Removal of bacteria or foreign * infection-spontaneous bacterial materials peritonitis may develop due to translocation of intestinal flora.
On a cellular level, betaine is an organic osmolyte that supports cell metabolism.
Although use of ions for osmotic adjustment may be energetically more favorable than biosynthesis of organic osmolyte under osmotic stresses, many plants accumulate organic osmolytes to tolerate osmotic stresses.
Betaine, also known as trimethylglycine (TMG), which has been used in human and animal nutrition for over 70 years as a methyl donor and osmolyte, is now a GRAS ingredient in selected applications supported by clinical and safety studies.
Potassium concentration decreased as external salinity decre ased, demonstrating its role as an osmolyte. When salinity and nutrients were altered, the same trend for tissue water and potassium emerged.
The osmolyte xylitol reduces the salt concentration of airway surface fluid and may enhance bacterial killing.