Betaine is used as an organic osmolyte
and as a source of methyl groups (Craig, 2004).
Adding key nutritional ingredients such as an osmolyte
can help cows stay hydrated, avoid dramatic increases in overall body temperature, recover faster after high heat and humidity, and improve pregnancy and fertility rates.
No less compelling is his observation that this molecule is essential to the survival of these ocean dwellers, who use it as an osmolyte
to obtain fresh water.
Furthermore, taurine is an antioxidant and an organic osmolyte
capable of protecting and stabilizing cells (Waterfield et al.
Taurine is the master osmolyte
in the human body and as such regulates distribution of the excitable ions (Na, K, Ca, Mg and CI) to their appropriate sides of the cell membrane.
accumulation: Can it really help increase crop yield under drought conditions, Plant Cell Environ, 25: 333-341.
Glycine betaine, a small N-trimethylated amino acid, is widely distributed in nature and serves as an osmolyte
, protecting cells from salt-induced osmotic stress (March, 1992; Rudulier et al.
Differential response of wheat cultivar genotypes to long term salinity stress in relation to oxidative stress, antioxidant activity and osmolyte
Sucrose was used to test gametophyte response to a pure osmolyte
that does not depolarize or hyperpolarize membranes (Fig.
The standard assay," Haswell says, "is to grow the bacteria for a couple of generations in a very salty broth, so that they have a chance to balance their internal osmolyte
concentration with the external one.
Creatine is thought to provide important neuro-protection for the brain through enhancing energy metabolism in brain tissue, promoting antioxidant activities, improving cerebral vasculation (improved brain circulation) and acting as a brain cell osmolyte
that can protect the brain against hyper-osmotic shock (Andres et al.
accumulation in xerophytes as a response to environmental stress.