Laboratory Studies Serum Findings Myoglobin Myoglobinemia (2-3 times greater than upper normal test limit) Creatinine Increased Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) Increased BUN/Creatinine ratio Decreased Creatinine kinase (CK) Increased Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) Increased Aspartate amino-transferase (AST) Increased Sodium (Na) Increased Chloride (Cl) Increased Potassium (K) Increased Calcium (Ca) Decreased (initially) Increased (later) Phosphorus (P) Increased Uric acid Increased Magnesium (Mg) Increased Serum osmolarity Increased Decreased Fixed Albumin Decreased Arterial blood gases (ABGs) Metabolic acidosis Urine Color Brownish Orthotolidine
Positive Amount Oliguria in 75% of cases.
Test kits use one of two methods to assess residual chlorine levels in swimming pool waters: the orthotolidine
(OT) method or the N,N-diethyl-P-phenylenediamine (DPD) method.
Since the 1970s, many professionals monitoring water quality in pools and spas have used one of two methods to test for chlorine levels: OT (orthotolidine
), which produces a yellow color in the sample, or DPD (N, N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine), which produces a pink color.