Pertinent exam findings included orthophoria
at distance and a 12-14[DELTA] intermittent alternating exotropia at near.
In patients with IXT, a greater effort to converge is required to fixate a near target binocularly compared with patients with orthophoria
. It is debated if in IXT the control of the deviation is mainly warranted by accommodation through the AC/A ratio or by fusional vergence through the CA/C ratio.
(15) performed medial rectus recession with the augmented Hummelsheim procedure in 9 patients and reported achieving orthophoria
in primary position and improved abduction.
Emmetropia and orthophoria
of both eyes are mandatory for the foundation of Binocular Single Vision (BSV).
Nobody could receive releasing fascia by cutting apart orthophoria
or fascia released under the guidance of arthroscope, except two (2.9%) patients, who were wil- ling to consider it after the failure of other therapies.
In our series, out of the 18 patients with MED, 12 (66.7%) patients were corrected to within 5 PD of orthophoria
, 16 (88.9%) patients within 10 PD of orthophoria
, and no one was found with overcorrection.
It is a common vision anomaly usually characterized as a binocular vision disorder with a low AC/A ratio in which the patient may have an orthophoria
or exophoria at distance, with a moderate to high exophoria at near, greater than the distance phoria [3, 4], reporting as clinical characteristics, several symptoms and signs that can be present during the visual examination [1, 5-10].
On ocular examination, his visual acuity was 6/6 in both eyes with orthophoria
, normal pupillary reflexes and ocular motility.
AC/A = accommodative convergence-to-accommodation, eso = esophoria, exo = exophoria, Hyper = hyperphoria, NA = not applicable, NRA = negative relative accommodation, Ortho = orthophoria
, PD = prism diopter, PRA = positive relative accommodation, SD = standard deviation, SEM = standard error of the mean.
Most adult strabismus represents recurrence of childhood strabismus, even after years of orthophoria
. Where the childhood strabismus resulted in a lack of binocular vision and stereopsis or where there is untreated amblyopia, recurrence is more likely as there is reduced stimulus to maintain orthophoria
The postoperative surgical target was orthophoria
in primary position.
(14) injected three patients within eight weeks of the onset of the palsy and all three patients recovered fully with orthophoria
in the primary position.