Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829), from whom Lamarckism draws its name, suggested that there are two trends in nature: an upward, unidirectional trend of complexification (orthogenesis
), and the inheritance of acquired characteristics ("use and disuse" for Darwin) that would explain an organism's adaptation to environmental conditions.
were neo-Darwinism, neo-Lamarckism, and orthogenesis
. (6) Neo-Darwinism
A contribution to the theory of orthogenesis
. American Naturalist 43:401-409.
(24) This concept that the alpha is already part of the omega is explained by Pierre Teilhard de Chardin in his discussion of orthogenesis
. Luzi was familiar with Chardin's work, particularly Le phenomene humain.
Much of the successful popular argument against original Darwinian Evolution is that it seems to imply a Victorian idea of Orthogenesis
, where species progress "upward" through time, from primitive to complex, in a natural order.
But there are two crucial distinctions that Williams fails to make: a) Darwinian gradualism is only one of a panoply of naturalistic explanations of evolution (others include Lamarckism, orthogenesis
, and saltationism); while it is indeed the one currently most widely accepted by scientists, it is false to charge that it is the only game in town and is therefore accepted by default.
Appleman discusses the new, old trend called intelligent design, which is merely fiat creationism allowing for more geologic time but still beholden to orthogenesis
(with God calling the shots).
A more detailed elaboration of what "orthogenesis
" might entail was provided by Tambiah (1977).
, whose chief spokesman was German zoologist Theodor Eimer, held that an evolving species followed an internally directed path of change that had nothing to do with adaptation.
Two terms that are essential in Teilhard's vocabulary are "cosmogenesis" and "orthogenesis
." The first term indicates the scope of evolution, that he is treating not just an aspect of evolution but the whole of it as a cosmic event.
A 11 "Linguistic orthogenesis
? Scots vowel quantity and the English length conspiracy." In: J.M.
Thus, Salkever notes that "Aristotle's biology does not result in a theory of orthogenesis
, or a kind of theodicy which bestows the blessings of the gods on a particular group of humans" (1986, 238).