organotin


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organotin

Any tin-based organic compound in wide use for marine anti-fouling paints, wood catalysts, plasticisers, slimicides, in industrial water systems and as fungicides. Human exposure results from contaminated seafood, agricultural products and drinking water. Blood levels of organotins may be high enough to act on retinoid X receptors and PPAR gamma, upregulating the adipogenic signalling pathway, which explains organotins’ obesogenic effects.
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The marine paint and coatings industry favors the convention, since it will provide a single regulatory program for all countries throughout the world, as well as a market for hull coatings that do not contain organotin biocides.
Imposex is known to be induced by organotin compounds and it has been proved by both laboratory and field experiments (Bryan et al., 1986, 1987; Gibbs et al., 1988).
The addition of the organotin catalyst to these mixlures induces a pseudoplastic behavior to the curing agent for [BSi.sub.0.75:1] and [TSi.sub.0.75:1] systems, as can be envisaged from the comparison between [[eta].sub.[varies]] and [[eta].sub.0] in Table 2.
Quantification of TBT by chemical analysis in water or sediment is very onerous, therefore imposex as a tool to detect contamination by organotin compounds is often used.
Recently organotin compounds have been used as reagents in reduction, transmetallation and coupling reactions or as extremely versatile catalysts in organic reactions [8]; the generally high selectivity of organotin reagents allows one to save time and to avoid product losses of protection-deprotection cycles.
Organotins include butyls, methyls and octyls, solids and liquids, sulfur and nonsulfur types for both high-impact and unmodified rigid compounds including weather-resistant systems.
(13) made a study on photodegradation of PVC with different types of thermal stabilizers, including metal stearates and three organotin compounds, by ESR analysis, which indicates that the organotin stabilizers are much more effective against photodegradation than the metal stearate stabilizers.
Specific topics include an overview of group IVA polymers, hyperbranched poly(silylenearylene)s, silole-containing conjugated polymers, silica polyamine composites, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane polymers, copolymers, resin nanocomposites, polymer hybrids containing silca- and silsesquioxane, siloxane elastomers and copolymers, bioinspired silica synthesis, organogermanium polymers, organotin polymers, and organolead-containing polymers.
Haistab 1214 is a nontoxic acid acceptor for rigid PVC that reportedly improves the performance of organotin heat stabilizers in extruded products, such as vinyl siding or profile.
Stille, The Palladium-Catalyzed Cross- Coupling Reactions of Organotin Reagents with Organic Electrophiles, Angew.