organ system

organ system

A group of tissues or organs, often with a common embryological origin, that participate in the same major systemic activity, e.g., circulation or digestion. See: table

Particular organ systems are listed under the first word. See: e.g., digestive system; nervous system; reproductive system

SystemChief ComponentsMajor Activities
Circulatory or CardiovascularHeart, arteries, veins, blood capillaries, lymphatic vesselsMoves blood, oxygen, and nutrients to tissues. Transports hormones, leukocytes, and lymphocytes. Removes wastes and carbon dioxide from tissues.
Digestive or AlimentaryOral cavity (incl., mouth, teeth, tongue, oropharynx), esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, colon, liver, pancreasTransforms consumed materials into absorbable molecules; absorbs water and small molecules.
EndocrinePituitary (adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis), pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, suprarenal (adrenal) glands, pancreatic islets, neuroendocrine system, ovaries, testesRegulates metabolic processes, blood pressure, body temperature, reproductive cell cycles, and levels of blood molecules (e.g., glucose, sodium, water).
HemolymphoidErythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, platelets, hemal generating tissues, lymphoid generating tissues (e.g., thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, lymphoid nodules)Carries oxygen, facilitates clotting, attaches to threatening antigenic substances, and generates immune reactions.
IntegumentalSkin, hair, nails, subcutaneous tissuesIsolates internal tissues from the environment to help maintain body temperature, hydration, and composition; provides a barrier against infection and injury.
MuscularSkeletal, smooth, and cardiac musclesChanges the relative position of tissues in the body. Provides stability and support. Generates heat. Helps to maintain internal metabolic homeostasis (e.g., normal blood glucose levels).
NervousBrain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, peripheral ganglia, sensory receptors (e.g., retina, cochlea), glia, Schwann cellsReceives sensory input and generates motor output. Coordinates the metabolic state and the activity types and levels throughout the body.
ReproductiveFemale: ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, breasts. Male: testes, ductus deferens, spermatic cord, prostate, penisStimulates maturation and gender specificity of tissues. Allows formation and maturation of an embryo.
RespiratoryNose, paranasal sinuses, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungsOxygenates blood and removes carbon dioxide. Generates sounds for communication.
SkeletalBones, cartilage, jointsSupports, stabilizes and protects the body. Gives the body its 3D shape.
UrinaryKidney, ureters, bladder, urethraMaintains the body's normal concentrations of salts, waters, and small molecules. Adjusts blood volume of body.
References in periodicals archive ?
The book's ten chapters address various organ systems, with each chapter introduced by a discussion of methods of importance to the respective organ system.
Like cancer, Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) can affect any organ system, and it can be progressive and fatal.
Long term--causing another type of cancer, immune system does not recover, sexual function organ system impairment?
They discuss techniques to optimize each type of elastography for each organ system and point out pitfalls.
Contributed by intensive care and other specialists from the UK, the 15 chapters cover general principles, communication and decision-making, sedation, pathophysiology of organ failure, key organ system support, monitoring, sepsis, brain-stem death, critical care outreach, end-of-life care, and nutrition, as well as organ donation.
Environmental health sciences research--like no other field--is not limited by an organ system, a methodological discipline, a disease, or a population, and is therefore by nature interdisciplinary.
ARS may involve many organ systems, which makes it hard to study candidate medical countermeasures that target the radiation effects on one specific organ system in animal models.
It has been reorganized to be more organ-based, with a common approach to diseases and disorders of each major organ system. Introductory chapters cover general topics such as patient selection and practical considerations.
Each of these emotions is associated with an organ system. Those that relate to Autism include: fear or shock that weakens the Kidney, over-pensiveness that weakens the Spleen and shock and anxiety that weakens the Heart.
The ramifications apply to every organ system and cellular response.
Among the organ system topics are the male reproductive system and disorders of sexual development, ophthalmic pathology, the cardiovascular system, bone marrow, and transplant pathology.
Written for undergraduate students, this atlas and text on human histology presents and explains drawings and photomicrographs from histological preparations of tissues and organs by organ system, from cell structure and general connective tissue to bone, muscle, and the cardiovascular system, along with description of concepts, structures, and functions.