organ system

organ system

A group of tissues or organs, often with a common embryological origin, that participate in the same major systemic activity, e.g., circulation or digestion. See: table

Particular organ systems are listed under the first word. See: e.g., digestive system; nervous system; reproductive system

SystemChief ComponentsMajor Activities
Circulatory or CardiovascularHeart, arteries, veins, blood capillaries, lymphatic vesselsMoves blood, oxygen, and nutrients to tissues. Transports hormones, leukocytes, and lymphocytes. Removes wastes and carbon dioxide from tissues.
Digestive or AlimentaryOral cavity (incl., mouth, teeth, tongue, oropharynx), esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, colon, liver, pancreasTransforms consumed materials into absorbable molecules; absorbs water and small molecules.
EndocrinePituitary (adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis), pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, suprarenal (adrenal) glands, pancreatic islets, neuroendocrine system, ovaries, testesRegulates metabolic processes, blood pressure, body temperature, reproductive cell cycles, and levels of blood molecules (e.g., glucose, sodium, water).
HemolymphoidErythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, platelets, hemal generating tissues, lymphoid generating tissues (e.g., thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, lymphoid nodules)Carries oxygen, facilitates clotting, attaches to threatening antigenic substances, and generates immune reactions.
IntegumentalSkin, hair, nails, subcutaneous tissuesIsolates internal tissues from the environment to help maintain body temperature, hydration, and composition; provides a barrier against infection and injury.
MuscularSkeletal, smooth, and cardiac musclesChanges the relative position of tissues in the body. Provides stability and support. Generates heat. Helps to maintain internal metabolic homeostasis (e.g., normal blood glucose levels).
NervousBrain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, peripheral ganglia, sensory receptors (e.g., retina, cochlea), glia, Schwann cellsReceives sensory input and generates motor output. Coordinates the metabolic state and the activity types and levels throughout the body.
ReproductiveFemale: ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, breasts. Male: testes, ductus deferens, spermatic cord, prostate, penisStimulates maturation and gender specificity of tissues. Allows formation and maturation of an embryo.
RespiratoryNose, paranasal sinuses, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungsOxygenates blood and removes carbon dioxide. Generates sounds for communication.
SkeletalBones, cartilage, jointsSupports, stabilizes and protects the body. Gives the body its 3D shape.
UrinaryKidney, ureters, bladder, urethraMaintains the body's normal concentrations of salts, waters, and small molecules. Adjusts blood volume of body.
References in periodicals archive ?
Cosmetic products contain a chemical called phthalates, and they have been demonstrated in literature to affect multiple organ systems leading to diseases pertaining to the affected organ system such as hypothyroidism.
for the purpose of this foa, cancers derived from the same organ system (i.
This issue of Alcohol Research: Current Reviews presents an overview of key findings in the field, with each article focusing on alcohol's effects on either an organ or organ system.
Each organ system section includes a chapter on anatomy and physiology, chapters include information on epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, drug treatment, surgical management, and other areas.
The severity of trauma may range from mild to fatal affecting only one organ system to multiple organ systems, either directly or indirectly.
The fourth edition carries on the mission of covering the fundamentals of cellular differentiation and tissue growth and development, tools and theoretical information needed for designing tissues and organs, and what is known about each organ system.
We have done so after discovering that while most students have no problem identifying an organ system, many have difficulty applying the definition of an organ to identify and differentiate between organs within the human body.
Virtually all organ system chapters have a strong component of basic science, which for the practising clinician may be excessive but it is also a useful summary for those of us lacking in this area.
A scoring system based on all five factors showed the highest specificity (93%), but even a four-factor system, which eliminated organ system failure, achieved a specificity of 78% (J.
Autoimmune diseases are a category of disorders that can affect just about every organ system in the body -- from hair to toenails -- and are often chronic diseases that can go on for a lifetime.
A problem in one organ system is almost always closely related to significant problems elsewhere in the body.
This book takes a systematic approach to avian pathology, with the 13 chapters divided according to organ system.