2001) Ghrelin, an endogenous growth hormone secretagogue is a novel orexigenic
peptide that antagonizes leptin action through the activation of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y/Y1 receptor pathway.
If there is a drop in leptin levels in the blood, the ARN is stimulated to release orexigenic
NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgrP), and GABA along with an inhibition of anorexigenic [alpha]-MSH (Kalra et al.
16, 17, 18, 19) Chronic diseases resulting in malnutrition should be accompanied by elevated levels of orexigenic
factors like ghrelin.
2003), and the expression of orexigenic
signals such as AgRP and NPY (Titolo et al.
The former is comprehensive; it includes up-to-date information on orexigenic
and anorexigenic hormones and cytokines, obesity syndromes and genome-wide searches on obesity yet at the same time it does not neglect social policy or bariatric surgery There is also quite the best summary on nutritional assessment I have ever read, contributed by Khursheed Jeejeebhoy, the doyen of gastroenterological clinical nutrition and former Chief at Toronto General Hospital, known affectionately to generations of trainees as the 'Jeej'.
NPY is an orexigenic
neurotransmitter involved in appetite, energy intake, and energy consumption.
This study demonstrates the acute effect of cigarette smoking on plasma concentrations of the novel orexigenic
Up until now there has been a major unmet need for new non-toxic orexigenic
and cytoprotective agents that can ameliorate some of the intractable symptoms associated with cancer related cachexia.
The neuropeptides concerned with feeding behavior are involved in this complex controlling system, of which the anorexigenic neuropeptide like proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and orexigenic
neuropeptide like Neuropeptide Y (NPY) play important roles in the regulation of food intake and energy balance (Bazhan and Zelena, 2013).
Megestrol acetate is orexigenic
and has long been used to promote appetite and weight gain independent of fluid retention in patients with cancer and other wasting diseases, such as HIV infection.
This includes the selective inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), the inhibition of neurotransmitter reuptake transporters (dopamine and norepinephrine) and the downregulation of orexigenic
hormone expression (AgRP and NPY) to decrease appetite and induce fat loss.
The role of ghrelin in food intake and energy balance is opposite to that of PYY, and it exerts orexigenic
effects through activation of the hypothalamic neuropeptide Y-Y1 pathway (4).