orchitis


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Related to orchitis: mumps orchitis

Orchitis

 

Definition

Orchitis is an inflammation of the testis, accompanied by swelling, pain, fever, and a sensation of heaviness in the affected area.

Description

Viral mumps is the most common cause of orchitis. Bacterial infections associated with the disorder are tuberculosis, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. A mechanical injury to the groin area may also cause orchitis. Fifteen to twenty-five percent of males past the age of puberty with mumps develop orchitis. Epididymo-orchitis (inflammation of both testes and part of the spermatic duct) is the most common bacterial type of Orchitis. This form of the condition occurs most often in sexually active males fifteen years and older, and in men over 45 with enlarged prostates.

Causes and symptoms

The people most susceptible to orchitis are those with inadequate mumps inoculation and, in the case of sexually transmitted orchitis, those who practice unsafe sex or have a history of sexually transmitted disease. Inadequate protection of the groin area during contact sports or other potentially harmful physical activities may result in injury leading to orchitis. Symptoms of orchitis include swelling of one or both testicles, tenderness in the groin area, fever, headache, and nausea. Symptoms may also include bloody discharge from the penis, and pain during urination, intercourse, or ejaculation.

Diagnosis

In most cases, Orchitis can be diagnosed by an urologist, general practitioner, or emergency room physician. Diagnosis is usually based on the results of a physical examination and patient history. Other testing may include a urinalysis and urine culture, screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea, ultrasound imaging, or blood tests.

Treatment

Elevation and support of the scrotum, and the application of cold packs to the groin area give some relief from the pain of orchitis. Medication for pain such as codeine and meperidine may be given. Only the symptoms of viral mumps orchitis are treated. Antibiotics are used to alleviate orchitis that is bacterial in origin. Sexually transmitted orchitis (especially when resultant from chlamydia or gonorrhea) is often treated with the antibiotic Ceftriaxone in conjunction with azithromycin or doxycycline.

Alternative treatment

For relief from swelling, the drinking of dandelion tea is recommended in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Another traditional Chinese treatment for swelling is the application of a poultice of ground dandelion and aloe to the affected area. Homeopathic remedies to reduce swelling include apis mel, belladonna, and pulsatilla. Consult a homeopathic physician before taking or administering these remedies to ensure safe and correct dosage.

Prognosis

Orchitis is usually unilateral and lasts between one and two weeks. Atrophy of the scrotum occurs in 60% of orchitis cases. However, hormonal function is not affected and resulting sterility is rare from mumps.

Prevention

Keeping mumps inoculations current and diligently practicing safe sex are the best ways to prevent orchitis from occurring. For males involved in contact sports or other potentially harmful physical activities, the wearing of a protective cup over the genitals will help guard against mechanical injuries that could lead to orchitis.

Resources

Periodicals

Rodriguez, Rod. "Acute Scrotum Due to Epididymo-Orchitis in Male Children." Impotence & Male Health Weekly Plus February 1999.

Other

Mycyck, Mark, MD. "Orchitis from Emergency Medicine/Genitourinary." Emedicine, Instant Access to the Minds of Medicine. February 2001. http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic344.htm.

Key terms

Atrophy — A wasting away or withering.
Epididymo-orchitis — Inflammation of both the testes and a part of the spermatic duct system.
Unilateral — Affecting only one side.

orchitis

 [or-ki´tis]
inflammation of a testis. Orchitis is not a common disorder, but it can occur in a variety of infectious diseases, including syphilis, tuberculosis, glanders, leprosy, and certain of the parasitic diseases. It usually accompanies epididymitis. Acute orchitis may also occur in such diseases as typhoid fever, pneumonia, or mumps in adult males. The symptoms of acute orchitis are swelling of one or both testes with pain and sensitivity to touch. In chronic orchitis there is no pain but the testes swell slowly and become hard. adj., adj orchit´ic.

or·chi·tis

(ōr-kī'tis),
Inflammation of the testis.
Synonym(s): orchiditis, testitis
[orchi- + G. -itis, inflammation]

orchitis

(ôr-kī′tĭs)
n.
Inflammation of one or both of the testes, often occurring as a result of mumps or other infection, trauma, or metastasis.

orchitis

Orchiditis Urology Testicular inflammation Etiology Infections–
eg, mumps, brucellosis, STDs–gonorrhea or chlamydia, polyarteritis nodosa, in conjunction with infections of the prostate or epididymis

or·chi·tis

(ōr-kī'tis)
Inflammation of the testis.
Synonym(s): testitis.
[orchi- + G. -itis, inflammation]

orchitis

Inflammation of the testicle. This occurs in at least 20% of men who contract mumps after puberty. Apart from this, the condition is rare. The affected testicle is swollen, exquisitely tender and acutely painful and there is usually high fever. The condition settles in 3 to 7 days. Orchitis may be followed by atrophy of the testicle, but sterility is uncommon unless both are affected. There is no specific treatment for orchitis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Granulomatous orchitis may mimic neoplasia both on clinical and US examination.
Orchitis and epididymitis have been reported previously as the sole urological manifestations of GCA.
The study subjects consisted of patients included in the LHID2000 who were newly diagnosed with epididymitis and orchitis (ICD-9-CM: 604), received a prescription for antibiotic medication, and received testicular sonography examination between January 2000 and December 2013 from the LHID2000 (Figure 1).
No histologically proven cases of IgA-associated orchitis have been reported in any pediatric study.
Orchitis is often evident by visual hyperemia of the testes and is a common finding in male Amazon parrots.
He was diagnosed with left epididymal orchitis, and an ultrasound showed a markedly enlarged epididymis with increased vascularity and increased left intra-testicular blood flow with a left hydrocele.
(1) It can cause various complications such as aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, orchitis, oophoritis, pancreatitis, and acquired sensorineural hearing loss.
Moroccan man with longstanding spondylodiscitis, orchitis and endocarditis
This case study agrees with other studies (6,7) that mumps orchitis rarely leads to sterility but it may contribute to subfertility.
Clinical manifestations of STD, for example, Chlamydia range from Urethritis, Epididymitis, Orchitis, Infertility in men to Cervicitis, Endometritis, Salpingitis, PID, infertility and Perihepatitis in women; and untreated STDs that display such manifestations are often fatal.
[sup][8] Differential diagnosis of Amyand's hernia includes Strangulated hernia, Richter's hernia, testicular torsion, testicular tumor with hemorrhage, inguinal adenitis, epidydimitis and orchitis. Appendectomy with primary hernia repair using the same incision is used for the treatment of Amyand's hernia.