48 Azoospermia is likely if the volumes of the post-pubertal testes are less than 10 ml each as measured by the Prader orchidometer
Testicular volume measurements were standardized via a modified Prader orchidometer
Significance of testicular size measurements in andrology: a new orchidometer
and its clinical application.
A drawing of an orchidometer
will have young readers checking out how big their testicles are and how far along they are in the process of puberty.
Testicular volume self-measurements were performed using a Prader orchidometer
, a method reported to be valid for testicular size measurement (Ramlau-Hansen et al.
Testicular volume (TV) was measured using an orchidometer
The presence of varicocele or other abnormalities were noted, and testicular size was estimated using Prader's orchidometer
(Andrology Australia, Clayton, Victoria, Australia).
Testicular volume, which was measured by orchidometer
, is not shown here because participating physicians considered the measurement to be unreliable--a decision made before analyses of phthalate exposure.
Because we were concerned about the reproducibility of the staging of sexual maturation according to Marshall and Tanner's scale (Marshall and Tanner 1969; Marshall and Tanner 1970) and the measurement of testicular volume using Prader's orchidometer
(Dornberger et al.
Four trained school physicians recorded medical history, staged sexual maturation according to Marshall and Tanner (12,13), and in boys also measured testicular volume using Prader's orchidometer
Testicular volume (TV) was measured by palpation and comparison to a Prader orchidometer
All testicular volumes were measured with a Prader orchidometer
and compared with normal values (7).