The disease is represented in a broad clinical classification of idiopathic orbital inflammation termed by Birch-Hirchfield in 1905 as an orbital pseudotumor
By contrast, patients with "orbital pseudotumor
" or "idiopathic orbital inflammation," which is not related to IgG4, tend to be unilateral and usually present with an acute onset of pain, erythema, proptosis, and restriction of ocular motility (41).
Idiopathic inflammatory orbital pseudotumor
In adults, it is commonly related to Graves' ophthalmopathy, orbital pseudotumor
, and rhinosinusitis-related orbital infections.
is an important differentiating pathology.
Herpes zoster ophthalmicus with orbital pseudotumor
syndrome complicated by optic nerve infarction and cerebral granulomatous angiitis: MR-pathologic correlation.
Patients with IgG4-related ophthalmic disease usually involve the lacrimal gland and may cause diseases such as orbital pseudotumor
or sclerosing dacryoadenitis.
Idiopathic orbital pseudotumor
is characterized by the presence of non-granulomatous inflammation in the eye without a known systemic or local reason.
Pathologic involvement beyond the cavernous sinus, superior orbital fissure, or apex of the orbit occurs rarely, and the disorder is part of a continuum with idiopathic orbital pseudotumor
, with which it shares histopathology features.
. Am J Clin Oncol 2010; 33:304-306.
Painful ophthalmoplegia is the consequence of the mass effect on the cavernous sinus which includes trauma, vascular malformation, neoplasm, infection, and inflammation including Tolosa-Hunt syndrome, Wegener's granulomatosis, or orbital pseudotumor
Marenco de la Fuente, "Resistant orbital pseudotumor
treated with rituximab in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.