A 3-5 mm wide orbicularis muscle
was removed from the anterior aspect of the tarsal plate to expose the orbital septum.
It starts as painless spasms of the orbicularis muscle
that may progress to involving all facial muscles.
Wound closure was achieved, by using absorbable 6-0 sutures (Vicryl), first for the orbicularis muscle
and finally for the skin tissue.
It is well recognized that the action of the orbicularis muscle
and eyelid dynamics are important contributing factors for FNLDO because movements of the orbicularis oculi muscle create hydrostatic pressure and facilitate tear flow .
In particular, two muscles have a significant participation with the oral cavity development, the orbicularis muscle
of the mouth (upper part) and the mental muscle (24).
The three mechanisms postulated for improved eye closure are: HA pushes the orbicularis muscle
anteriorly changing the force vector inferiorly; there is relative increase in orbicularis muscle
and skin made available for eyelid closure; HA may act as a form of loading to the upper eyelid (see paralytic lagophthalmos, above).
In external DCR, there is an external nasal scar and the possibility of injury to medial canthal ligament and orbicularis muscle
. In endoscopic DCR there is no external incision, hence no pathological nasal scar, no injury to medial canthus and orbicularis oculi muscle.
Dry eye syndrome is one of the most common manifestations and is caused by the involvement of several cranial nerves--decreased blink reflex (trigeminal nerve) and weak contraction of the orbicularis muscle
The anterior lamella is composed of the skin and the orbicularis muscle
; the posterior lamella is composed of the conjunctiva, tarsus, and the eyelid retractors.
McCarthy and Court21 attributed vermillion notching after cleft lip repair to excessive sacrifice of vermillion during primary repair or inadequate approximation of orbicularis muscle
The orbicularis muscle
was sharply dissected away from the skin laterally.
Most of the temporal branch of the facial nerve went to the lower front of the superficial temporal artery frontal branch, entered into the deep surface of frontal muscle through the upper part of orbicularis muscle
, and the outer edge of the frontal muscle.