Baynton links the rise of oralism
to growing American nationalism in the post-Civil War period, and argues that oralism
was adopted by most American schools in the late 19,h century as a means of inculcating a sense of national identity in the deaf.
42) For more on the nineteenth-century history of Oralism
, see Davis' Enforcing Normalcy; Douglas C.
This was the helplessness to which proponents of oralism
This latter point must be understood in terms of one of the forms taken by the debates between oralism
and manualism that became more visible near the close of the eighteenth century.
was the focus for Deaf education for around a century.
faced in the age of eugenics, oralism
, and beyond, see HARLAN LANE, THE
Proposed and imposed in the late nineteenth century by hearing social workers, teachers, and others engaged in deaf education, oralism
remained entrenched in America's deaf schools for a century, despite vociferous resistance on the part of the deaf.
Gannon (1981) and Lane (1984) strongly believe that oralism
was detrimental to deaf education in this country and that deaf people have been suffering the effects of inadequate education since that time.
Yet, by the 1890s, the move towards oralism
was afoot in North America, largely because it was seen as a sign of progress in making the deaf "like" hearing people.
prevailed in schools for decades until the 1960s, when ASL gained status as a legitimate language.
Attempts to colonize Deaf bodies were combined with attempts to colonize Deaf cultures at the Congress of Milan in 1880, when Oralism
officially replaced sign language as the lingua franca of the Deaf.
She discusses how Abbe de l'Epee promoted the education of deaf students, how the movement that celebrated sign language fostered the Societe Centrale, and how hearing educators at the Milan Congress in 1880 adopted oralism
to defeat deafness and prohibit sign language.