Baynton links the rise of oralism
to growing American nationalism in the post-Civil War period, and argues that oralism
was adopted by most American schools in the late 19,h century as a means of inculcating a sense of national identity in the deaf.
Putting this statement into action in this chapter, Esmail investigates the cultural reception to deaf marriage and reproduction, identifying the eugenicist turn that oralism
took from the 1870s onwards.
(15) Deaf Britons and North Americans shared strategies at Deaf conferences, reported each other's news in their periodicals, and expressed solidarity with the fights against Oralism
that the other was waging.
89) Schooling, therefore, had to focus on methods that would fully integrate the deaf into hearing society, a pedagogy known as "oralism
The recognition of NZSL is the first step in the shift from a century of "oralism
" (where speech and tip reading were the teaching methods used) to a future with a bilingual/bicultural approach to education for Deaf children in New Zealand.
faced in the age of eugenics, oralism
, and beyond, see HARLAN LANE, THE
The controversy started when an inquisitive student got lost somewhere between "oralism
" and "orang" and found a rather recent entry to the lexicon: "oral sex".
Deaf Jewish children, like deaf youth of other backgrounds, were caught up in the disastrous pedagogic "solution" to the "problem" of deafness known as oralism
. Through the teaching of lip reading and speech, oralists sought to integrate deaf people into hearing society; the strictest oralists also waged a campaign against sign language and deaf culture.
Instead, like most other institutions in the Americas, Jamaican schools instructed students in a collection of techniques known as oralism
. Oralist educators believed that if students studied lip reading, mouth movements, and speech techniques, they could fully integrate into speaking society and obtain employment.
In the 1870s Alexander Graham Bell promoted oralism
, using speech for communication, in deaf education.