oral tolerance


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oral tolerance

The suppression of autoimmune or allergic responses as a result of eating antigenic material.
See also: tolerance

tolerance

the ability to endure without effect or injury.

drug tolerance
1. decreased susceptibility to the effects of a drug due to its continued administration.
2. the maximum permissible level of a drug in or on animal feed or food at any particular time relative to slaughter.
high-dose tolerance
in immunology, that induced by the intravenous administration of high doses of aqueous proteins.
immunological tolerance
specific nonreactivity of the immune system to a particular antigen, which is capable under other conditions of inducing an immune response. There is, under normal circumstances, tolerance to self-antigens; identical (monozygotic) twins and dizygotic cattle or sheep twins where there has been placental fusion and exchange of bone marrow stem cells are also tolerant of each other's tissues. Allophenic mice, that is mice produced by fusion of blastocysts from different mice are also tolerant of both 'parents'. The administration of antigens either at high or low dose and infection with certain viruses during critical early stages of immunological development may also induce tolerance.
tolerance level
the concentration of a drug or chemical permitted by law to be present in human food.
tolerance limits
the numerical limits within which a previously identified proportion of values of a variable, or observations in a population, can be expected to occur.
low-dose tolerance
that induced by repeated administration of low doses of the antigen.
oral tolerance
that induced by oral administration of the antigen.
self-tolerance
the non-reactivity of the immune system to self-antigens.
tolerance test
see tolerance test.
zero tolerance
when no detectable amount of a chemical substance is permitted in human food.
References in periodicals archive ?
NKT cells play critical roles in the induction of oral tolerance by inducing regulatory T cells producing IL-10 and transforming growth factor beta, and by clonally deleting antigen-specific T cells.
This oral tolerance to collagen powerfully suppresses joint inflammation, as has been shown in numerous studies.
This unique intervention works by activating induced oral tolerance, the natural pathway that effectively "short-circuits" the immune response behind arthritis--halting disease activity.
Given the lack of any increase in the levels of RAST IgG for gliadin, it seems likely that the mechanism of oral tolerance is, at least in part, due to the active suppression of IgE antibody production.
Molecular analysis also revealed clues to explain how oral tolerance therapy might dampen the allergic response.
So far so good, except that Weiner has hardly a clue how oral tolerance actually works, or at least Quinn fails to explain it adequately, leaving the reader to wonder whether this is just some cockamamie idea cooked up by a bright, but overeager doctor and then marketed ferociously to Wall Street.
The agreement additionally includes non clinical research focusing on the use of various compounds that may serve to enhance the immune mediated oral tolerance response to specific antigens.
Antigen-induced, tolerogenic CD11c+,CD11b+ dendritic cells are abundant in Peyer's patches during the induction of oral tolerance to type II collagen and suppress experimental collagen-induced arthritis.
The efficacy seen with the lowest dosage is consistent with the findings of animal studies and with known mechanisms of oral tolerance in which lower doses of orally administered autoantigens preferentially induce disease-suppressing regulatory cells.
Proceedings of an October 2003 conference held in New York City, synthesizing the large number of advances that have been made in understanding mechanisms of oral tolerance in animal models over the past decade and their applications to the treatment of human disease.
Conceptually, the phenomenon of oral tolerance is well established experimentally, and at least some of the important immunologic mechanisms have been described (Brandtzaeg 1996; Mowat 1987; Strobel 1997; Strobel and Mowat 1998).