oral poliovirus vaccine
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.
1. inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), an aqueous suspension of inactivated strains of poliomyelitis virus (types 1, 2, and 3) used by injection; has largely been replaced by the oral vaccine;
2. oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), an aqueous suspension of live, attenuated strains of poliomyelitis virus (types 1, 2, and 3) given orally for active immunization against poliomyelitis.
Synonym(s): poliomyelitis vaccines
oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV)
an attenuated preparation of live poliovirus that confers immunity to poliomyelitis. Also called Sabin vaccine.
indications Replaced by inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), OPV supplies in the United States will be limited once existing supplies are depleted. It was routinely prescribed for immunization against poliomyelitis, but its use is now limited to treatment in areas with outbreaks of paralytic polio.
contraindications Immunosuppression, concomitant use of corticosteroids, cancer, immunoglobulin abnormalities, or acute infection prohibits its use.
adverse effects Adverse effects are uncommon. Cases of vaccine-induced paralytic disease have occurred but are very rare. Nonetheless, it is because of the risk of vaccine-induced paralytic poliomyelitis that an all-IPV immunization schedule is recommended for children in the United States.