oral poliovirus vaccine


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po·li·o·vi·rus vac·cines

1. inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), an aqueous suspension of inactivated strains of poliomyelitis virus (types 1, 2, and 3) used by injection; has largely been replaced by the oral vaccine;
2. oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), an aqueous suspension of live, attenuated strains of poliomyelitis virus (types 1, 2, and 3) given orally for active immunization against poliomyelitis.

oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV)

an attenuated preparation of live poliovirus that confers immunity to poliomyelitis. Also called Sabin vaccine.
indications Replaced by inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), OPV supplies in the United States will be limited once existing supplies are depleted. It was routinely prescribed for immunization against poliomyelitis, but its use is now limited to treatment in areas with outbreaks of paralytic polio.
contraindications Immunosuppression, concomitant use of corticosteroids, cancer, immunoglobulin abnormalities, or acute infection prohibits its use.
adverse effects Adverse effects are uncommon. Cases of vaccine-induced paralytic disease have occurred but are very rare. Nonetheless, it is because of the risk of vaccine-induced paralytic poliomyelitis that an all-IPV immunization schedule is recommended for children in the United States.
References in periodicals archive ?
Genetic basis of attenuation of the Sabin oral poliovirus vaccines.
Cessation of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine and introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine--worldwide, 2016.
Poliomyelitis prevention in the United States: introduction of a sequential vaccination schedule of inactivated poliovirus vaccine followed by oral poliovirus vaccine.
The Global Action Plan to Minimize Poliovirus Facility-Associated Risk After Type-Specific Eradication of Wild Polioviruses and Sequential Cessation of Oral Poliovirus Vaccine Use (GAPIII) (7), endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2015, sets the stage for the implementation of containment work.
They emphasized that the experience in Mexico may not apply to developing countries, most of which use the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV).
To reduce the risk for paralysis from infection with vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), in April 2016, all 155 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV)-using countries switched from trivalent OPV (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV), containing vaccine virus types 1 and 3.
Estimated national routine vaccination coverage of infants in Syria with 3 doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV3) declined from preconflict levels of 83% in 2010 to 47%-52% during 2012-2014.
This was the second cVDPV2 isolate identified in Borno in 2016; the first isolate was from an environmental sample collected in March 2016 in Maiduguri LGA which had prompted SIAs with monovalent oral poliovirus vaccine type 2 (mOPV2) in May, June, and July (2).
This decrease was achieved primarily through the use of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV), which contains types 1,2, and 3 live, attenuated polioviruses.
These polioviruses were detected approximately 4 months after April 25, 2016, when India officially ceased use of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV), containing Sabin attenuated types 1, 2, and 3 polioviruses, and switched to bivalent OPV (bOPV), containing Sabin attenuated types 1 and 3 polioviruses (1).
Among the 15 WPV1 cases reported in 2016, children aged <36 months accounted for 13 cases; four of those children had received only a single dose of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV).