oral hypoglycemic agent


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oral hypoglycemic agent

an oral antidiabetic agent commonly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Oral hypoglycemic agents are not prescribed as a substitute for diet and exercise but rather as adjunctive therapy. An oral hypoglycemic agent cannot be used as monotherapy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus since these patients lack sufficient insulin.

oral hypoglycemic agent

Abbreviation: OHA.
Any drug taken by mouth that lowers or maintains blood glucose (as opposed to insulin, a drug taken parenterally to control blood sugar). In addition to diet and exercise regimens, OHAs are typically used to control blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Commonly used oral agents for diabetes include metformin (a biguanide), sulfonylureas (such as glyburide), alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose), and thiazolidinediones (pioglitazone). Used appropriately, OHAs lower hemoglobin A1c levels by about 0.5 to 1.5%.
See: table * Combinations of these drugs, either with each other or with insulin, may be used in patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus.
Class of DrugActivityAdverse FeaturesApproximate Cost
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, e.g., acarboseDelay absorption of glucose from intestinal tractFlatulence and other abdominal side effectsExpensive
Biguanides, e.g., metforminImprove sensitivity to insulin; decrease glucose production by the liverLess weight gain than with other agents; avoid in patients with renal failureVery expensive
Sulfonylureas, 1st generation, e.g., tolazamideCause beta cells to release insulinResistance to drug may develop over timeInexpensive
Sulfonylureas, 2nd generation, e.g., glipizide, glyburide, othersSame as 1st generation; also increase sensitivity to insulinSame as 1st generationModerately expensive
Thiazolidinediones, e.g., pioglitazoneImprove sensitivity to insulin; improve lipid profileMonthly monitoring of liver functions needed for some drugs in this class due to risk of toxicity. Heart failure and other heart diseases.Very expensive
See also: agent
References in periodicals archive ?
We focused the main study on utilization of oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) used to maintain glycemic control in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Four patients did not know of their diabetic status and four were on insulin therapy whereas all others were on oral hypoglycemic agents.
double dagger]) Oral hypoglycemic agents included [alpha]-glucosidase inhibitors, biguanides, glinides, glitazones, sulfonylureas, and thiazolidinediones.
5 percent and no longer needing insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents (blood sugar-lowering medications).
Researchers who conducted the study determined that four medications and medication classes--warfarin (Coumadin), insulin, antiplatelet agents, such as Plavix and aspirin, and oral hypoglycemic agents, such as metformin and Glucotrol, that lower blood glucose levels--were implicated in 67 percent of hospitalizations among American seniors due to adverse drug events.
A study in the November 24, 2011 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine JNJEJM) found that four medications or medication classes--warfarin (Coumadin), insulin, antiplatelet agents such as clopidogrel (Plavix) and aspirin, and oral hypoglycemic agents that lower blood glucose levels--were implicated in 67 percent of hospitalizations among American seniors due to adverse drug events.
Sutton is stabilized and being prepared for discharge on oral hypoglycemic agents.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether use of oral hypoglycemic agents is associated with an altered breast cancer risk in women.
Currently, there are six major classes of oral hypoglycemic agents available in the United States: agents that stimulate insulin secretion (sulfonylureas and rapid-acting secretagogues); reduce hepatic glucose production (biguanides); delay digestion and absorption of intestinal carbohydrates ([alpha]-glucosidase inhibitors); improve insulin action (thiazolidin-ediones [TZDs]); or inhibit glucagon release (dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 [DPP-4] inhibitors).
Gingko and garlic have increased the risk of bleeding with anticoagulants, while garlic has increased the hepatotoxicity of paracetamol and enhanced the effect of oral hypoglycemic agents.
The procedure maintained its effect through 3 years of follow-up, during which the patients significantly lowered their use of oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin.