oral hypoglycemic agent


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oral hypoglycemic agent

an oral antidiabetic agent commonly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Oral hypoglycemic agents are not prescribed as a substitute for diet and exercise but rather as adjunctive therapy. An oral hypoglycemic agent cannot be used as monotherapy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus since these patients lack sufficient insulin.

oral hypoglycemic agent

Abbreviation: OHA.
Any drug taken by mouth that lowers or maintains blood glucose (as opposed to insulin, a drug taken parenterally to control blood sugar). In addition to diet and exercise regimens, OHAs are typically used to control blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Commonly used oral agents for diabetes include metformin (a biguanide), sulfonylureas (such as glyburide), alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose), and thiazolidinediones (pioglitazone). Used appropriately, OHAs lower hemoglobin A1c levels by about 0.5 to 1.5%.
See: table * Combinations of these drugs, either with each other or with insulin, may be used in patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus.
Class of DrugActivityAdverse FeaturesApproximate Cost
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, e.g., acarboseDelay absorption of glucose from intestinal tractFlatulence and other abdominal side effectsExpensive
Biguanides, e.g., metforminImprove sensitivity to insulin; decrease glucose production by the liverLess weight gain than with other agents; avoid in patients with renal failureVery expensive
Sulfonylureas, 1st generation, e.g., tolazamideCause beta cells to release insulinResistance to drug may develop over timeInexpensive
Sulfonylureas, 2nd generation, e.g., glipizide, glyburide, othersSame as 1st generation; also increase sensitivity to insulinSame as 1st generationModerately expensive
Thiazolidinediones, e.g., pioglitazoneImprove sensitivity to insulin; improve lipid profileMonthly monitoring of liver functions needed for some drugs in this class due to risk of toxicity. Heart failure and other heart diseases.Very expensive
See also: agent
References in periodicals archive ?
In our study, 44 (44%) diabetic patients were on oral hypoglycemic agents, 40% were taking oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin, and 16 patients (16%) were on insulin alone.
Unlike GCK MODY, transcription factor MODY is characterized by hyperglycemia that progressively worsens and often requires treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin.
We evaluated whether they had an altered risk of breast cancer in relation to use of various types of oral hypoglycemic agents.
Garlic has antidiabetic effects, however there are no reports of adverse interactions between oral hypoglycemic agents and garlic.
Gutzin SJ, Kozer E, Magee LA, Feig DS, Koren G: The safety of oral hypoglycemic agents in the first trimester of pregnancy: A meta-analysis.
The procedure maintained its effect through 3 years of follow-up, during which the patients significantly lowered their use of oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin.
Key Words: hypoglycemia, diabetes, insulin, oral hypoglycemic agents, symptoms, primary care
All subjects had elevated glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels above the American Diabetes Association's (ADA) recommendation of 7% or less, despite consumption of oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) for at least six months prior.
For the majority using diet or oral hypoglycemic agents, the effect is more of monitoring control rather than day-to-day therapy adjustment.
For example, a person with diabetes might take insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents alone or in combination.
The majority of otherwise healthy hypoglycemic individuals will be found to have insulin-mediated hypoglycemia, either due to inappropriate insulin production, insulin injection, or ingestion of oral hypoglycemic agents.
Sixty-six patients (mean age, 55 years) with type 2 diabetes who had been taking oral hypoglycemic agents for at least 3 months were randomly assigned to receive, in double-blind fashion, 400 mg of pinitol 3 times per day or placebo for 12 weeks, while continuing their oral hypoglycemic agents.