oral candidiasis


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candidiasis

 [kan″dĭ-di´ah-sis]
infection by fungi of the genus Candida, generally C. albicans, most commonly involving the skin, oral mucosa (thrush), respiratory tract, or vagina; occasionally there is a systemic infection or endocarditis. It is most often associated with pregnancy, glycosuria, diabetes mellitus, or use of antibiotics. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has found that in the United States this condition is the fourth most common cause of nosocomial infections of the blood stream. Called also candidosis and moniliasis.

The most prominent symptom of vaginitis due to Candida infection is severe itching. Sexual transmission is unlikely. Intravaginal cream containing miconazole or clotrimazole, applied each night for one week, usually clears up the infection. Difficulty or pain with swallowing, or retrosternal pain, may indicate candidiasis of the esophagus. Systemic antifungal therapy is indicated for esophagitis and other more severe forms of the disease. Therapeutic options include ketoconazole, fluconazole, and amphotericin b. Chronic suppressive therapy is sometimes required for severely immunocompromised patients. The Infectious Disease Society of America has published “Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Candidiasis” on their web site, http://www.idsociety.org.
atrophic candidiasis oral candidiasis marked by erythematous, pebbled patches on the hard or soft palate, buccal mucosa, and dorsal surface of the tongue, a complication of numerous different conditions such as vitamin deficiency, diabetes mellitus, or poorly fitting dentures. There are acute forms and a chronic form called denture stomatitis.
bronchopulmonary candidiasis candidiasis of the respiratory tree, occurring in a mild afebrile form manifested as chronic bronchitis, and in a usually fatal form resembling tuberculosis. Called also bronchocandidiasis.
chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis a group comprising a number of varying forms of Candida infection, marked by chronic candidiasis of the skin and nails and the mucous membranes of the mouth and vagina that is resistant to treatment; it may be localized or diffuse, is sometimes familial, and may be associated with disorders of the immune and endocrine systems.
endocardial candidiasis Candida endocarditis.
oral candidiasis thrush.
pulmonary candidiasis a type of fungal pneumonia caused by infection with Candida species, seen especially in immunocompromised patients or those with malignancies. Called also Candida pneumonia.
vaginal candidiasis (vulvovaginal candidiasis) candidal infection of the vagina, and usually also the vulva, commonly characterized by itching, creamy white discharge, vulvar redness and swelling, and dyspareunia. Called also Candida or candidal vaginitis and Candida or candidal vulvovaginitis.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

oral candidiasis

Infectious disease A yeast infection of the adult oral mucosa, caused by Candida albicans, an opportunistic pathogen linked to immune compromise–eg, with AIDS, immunosuppression in transplants, chemotherapy, corticosteroids, DM, ↑ age, poor health, inherited immune defects, xerostomia Clinical Whitish plaques on oral mucosa which, if scraped away, leave a reddish base and pinpoint bleeding; OC may spread to the esophagus, producing candida esophagitis with dysphagia, and disseminate throughout the body–mortality of systemic candidiasis may reach 70%. See Oral thrush.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The isolates tested were obtained from the mycology collection of the Oral Microbiology Laboratory in the Faculty of Odontology, from clinical Chronic Atrophic Oral Candidiasis cases, being the following Candida species: Candida albicans (23778, 23651, 23609, 24073 e 23536), Candida parapsilosis (2340 e 23459), Candida glabrata (23453), Candida krusei (23932) and C.
Two clinical isolates of Candida albicans, named 1 and 2, removed from oral candidiasis lesions of patients from the school clinic of the State University of Paraiba were also included, under the approval of the institution's ethics committee, under number: 51779315.7.0000.5187 (Dec 15th, 2015).
Oral candidiasis was seen in 16.5% in current study.
To induce oral candidiasis and the clinical signs of the disease, initially we investigated the time course effects of cyclosporine alone and its combination with hydrocortisone acetate in the induced oral candidiasis in the rat tongue in 2 groups, with each group consisting of 5 animals.
Shetty, "Diagnosis and management of oral candidiasis," Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America, vol.
Thus, it is possible to affirm that the opportunistic lesion most commonly associated with HIV-infected patients is oral candidiasis and that this finding is fundamental for the early diagnosis of AIDS (1-3,10,14,16,18,19).
Of interest was the 2.1% incidence of oral candidiasis in the group of ixekizumab-treated patients, the vast majority of whom responded well to appropriate therapy.
Oral candidiasis occurs most commonly with falling CD4+ T-cell count in middle and late stages of HIV disease, indicating its occurrence with severe immunosuppression.
These results suggest that denture treatment could be a means of treating oral candidiasis that is thought to be caused by masticatory dysfunction due to poorly fitting dentures.
A 26-month-old girl was admitted to inpatient clinics with the complaints of recurrent oral Candidiasis, lower respiratory tract infections, and diarrhea.