These instruments attempt to analyse and explain dynamics of motivation such as optimism and pessimism.
Does optimism exist at the group level or is the phenomenon created through individual perception?
When individuals within a group become lackadaisical, and demonstrate changes from an optimistic to a pessimistic attitude, or become social loafers (Karau & William 1993), a difference in the group's perceived overall, or generalised optimism may be noticed.
While there are no current measures of group optimism or the perception of optimism, group research areas that lend insight into group dynamics include charismatic leadership (Gardner & Avolio 1998), intra-group communication (Gladstien 1994, Campion, Papper & Medsker 1996), faith and belief in good performance (Lindsey, Brass & Thomas 1995), and values, perceptions and codes of conduct (Erez & Earley 1993).
Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism: A reevaluation of the life orientation test.
Coping with stress: divergent strategies of optimism and pessimist.
E-mail: Drelsaid78@yahoo.com Table 1 Regression for Group Optimism and Optimism Perceived Model values Change statistics # R [R.sup.2] A [R.sup.2] Std [R.sup.2] 1 0.396 0.157 0.152 1.808 0.157 Change statistics Durbin Watson # F df1 df2 P < 1 30.58 1 164 0.000 1.833 Notes: a.
The results of this study have also provided evidence that personality characteristics of optimism and pessimism can be accurately measured.
Under hiring practices, the interviewer may be able to accurately identify an optimism level of a role playing interviewee group.
Third, organisations with active human resource departments can benefit through the use of optimism identification in employee candidates.
This study has provided a foundational guide to utilise an individual's perception of optimism as an accurate measure of a group's optimism.
Finding Five: The ascertaining of optimism can be effectively completed by any participating member of a group.