Exclusion criteria were as follows: (1) other diseases that can cause edema of the optic disc
, such as a brain tumor; (2) other ocular diseases that can cause VF defects, such as retinal detachment, vitreous hemorrhage, and glaucoma; (3) complications from systemic autoimmune diseases; (4) any evidence suggestive of temporal arteritis, such as a history of scalp tenderness, Westergren sedimentation rate ≥40 mm/h, or positive C-reactive protein; and (5) those without a detailed medical record.
Presented herein is a patient with bilateral uveitis, unilateral macular ischemia, bilateral optic disc
involvement, and a biopsy-confirmed diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis.
Complex structures and their spatial variability reduce the recognition rate of optic discs
. Inspired by the fact that humans can find optic discs
in images by observing local features, we propose using local feature spectrum analysis to eliminate the influence caused by the variability of spatial locations.
The optic disc
is the point of exit for all retinal nerve fibers to the brain, and thus, it is important to observe the optic disc
in glaucoma management.
The Angio Disc protocol uses a flow density analysis tool for the optic disc
and peripapillary retina.
Caption: Figure 1: (a) shows the small black nodules on the surface of the iris in both eyes; (b) shows the pale optic disc
, the mottling, and no bone spicule-like pigmentation fundus in both eyes; (c) shows the mottled lesions with hyper- and hypofluorescence in the posterior fundus and no leakage from the optic discs
in both eyes.
Optical Coherence Tomography Technique: RNFL thickness around optic disc
was determined by OCT 3000 (V4.2.4 Zeiss-Humphrey, Dublin, California, USA).
classification by the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph and by physicians with varying experience of glaucoma.
Optical coherence tomography objectively documented bilateral swollen optic discs
Each slide contained a full view of an optic disc
. The slides showed normal optic nerves, papilledema, pseudopapilledema from optic nerve head drusen, and other disorders that should not be confused with papilledema, such as advanced glaucoma and optic atrophy.
The influence of the optic disc
size on the glaucoma diagnosis was subsequently assessed by each parameter of OCT and was assessed by likelihood ratio chi-square test.
Glaucomatous optic neuropathy is characterized by thinning of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and optic disc
cupping as a result of axonal and secondary retinal ganglion cell loss.