The ocular manifestations of anaemia are dry eye, conjunctival haemorrhage, lid haematoma, orbital haemorrhage, retinal haemorrhage, subhyaloid haemorrhage, central retinal vein occlusion, vitreous haemorrhage, optic disc oedema and optic neuropathy.
Loss of vision can be the presenting symptom in some of the cases due to haemorrhages or exudates in the macula or optic disc oedema or optic neuropathy.
 Anaemia and raised intracranial pressure in Malaria can cause optic disc oedema.
Others include inflammatory disorders like optic neuropathy6 optic disc hyperaemia optic disc oedema
subconjunctival haemorrhage5 and retinal vein occlusion9.
* The second most common local cause of optic disc oedema were AION 6% cases between 50-60 years of age.
* The third most common local cause of optic disc oedema was BRAO in 2% cases in age group of 41-50yr.
serious optic disc oedema
(ODE or papilloedema) is essential to avoid
Images in the regional winner category captured toxoplasmosis (Katie Naphthan, Horsham, UK), optic disc oedema
(Rob Millard, Harpurhey, UK), papilloedema (Darren Sheward, Moonee Ponds, Victoria, Australia) and chorioretinal scarring (Anthony Sheen, East Maitland, New South Wales, Australia).
Optic nerve ischaemia most frequently occurs at the optic nerve head, where structural crowding of nerve fibres and reduction of the vascular supply may combine to impair perfusion to a critical degree and produce optic disc oedema
. The most common such syndrome is termed anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (AION).