CRP binds to a variety of ligands such as phosphocholine residues, modified LDL, and damaged cells; activates complement; and opsonizes
biological particles (1, 2).
Fetuin (alpha2-HS-glycoprotein) opsonizes
cationic macrophage deactivating molecules.
These receptors can recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and host proteins (such as IgG and complement) which were used to opsonize
the microbe (Figure 1(b)).
Calreticulin appears to function as part of a group of proteins including CD91, C1q, and mannose binding lectin that serve to opsonize
apoptotic cells for phagocytosis .
(10) This could be due to decreased serum immunoglobulin, protein deficiency, decreased bactericidal activity of the leukocytes, immunosuppressive therapy, decreased perfusion of the spleen caused by hypovolemia and loss in the urine of a complement factor (Properdin factor 3) that opsonizes
The complement pathway participates in the innate immune response when C3 binds (opsonizes
) MAMPs including glycans, thereby labeling them for recognition by the host.
The complement system opsonizes
pathogens and generates chemotactic peptides and the membrane attack complex .