operant conditioning


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Related to operant conditioning: Respondent conditioning

conditioning

 [kon-dish´un-ing]
1. in physical medicine, improvement of physical health by a program of exercises; called also physical conditioning.
2. in psychology, a form of learning in which a response is elicited by a neutral stimulus which previously had been repeatedly presented in conjunction with the stimulus that originally elicited the response. Called also classical or respondent conditioning.

The concept had its beginnings in experimental techniques for the study of reflexes. The traditional procedure is based on the work of Ivan P. Pavlov, a Russian physiologist. In this technique the experimental subject is a dog that is harnessed in a sound-shielded room. The neutral stimulus is the sound of a metronome or bell which occurs each time the dog is presented with food, and the response is the production of saliva by the dog. Eventually the sound of the bell or metronome produces salivation, even though the stimulus that originally elicited the response (the food) is no longer presented.

In the technique just described, the conditioned stimulus is the sound of the bell or metronome, and the conditioned response is the salivation that occurs when the sound is heard. The food, which was the original stimulus to salivation, is the unconditioned stimulus and the salivation that occurred when food was presented is the unconditioned response.

Reinforcement is said to take place when the conditioned stimulus is appropriately followed by the unconditioned stimulus. If the unconditioned stimulus is withheld during a series of trials, the procedure is called extinction because the frequency of the conditioned response will gradually decrease when the stimulus producing the response is no longer present. The process of extinction eventually results in a return of the preconditioning level of behavior.
aversive conditioning learning in which punishment or other unpleasant stimulation is used to associate negative feelings with an undesirable response.
classical conditioning conditioning (def. 2).
instrumental conditioning (operant conditioning) learning in which a particular response is elicited by a stimulus because that response produces desirable consequences (reward). It differs from classical conditioning in that the reinforcement takes place only after the subject performs a specific act that has been previously designated. If no unconditioned stimulus is used to bring about this act, the desired behavior is known as an operant. Once the behavior occurs with regularity the behavior may be called a conditioned response.

The traditional example of instrumental conditioning uses the Skinner box, named after B. F. Skinner, an American behavioral psychologist. The subject, a rat, is kept in the box and becomes conditioned to press a bar by being rewarded with food pellets each time its early random movements caused it to press against the bar.

The principles and techniques related to instrumental conditioning are used clinically in behavior therapy to help patients eliminate undesirable behavior and substitute for it newly learned behavior that is more appropriate and acceptable.
physical conditioning conditioning (def. 1).
respondent conditioning conditioning (def. 2).
work conditioning a physical exercise program designed to restore specific strength, flexibility, and endurance for return to work following injury, disease, or medically imposed rest; it may be part of a complete work hardening program when other aspects of functional restoration are required.

op·er·ant con·di·tion·ing

a type of conditioning developed by Skinner in which an experimenter waits for the target response (head scratching) to be conditioned to occur (emitted) spontaneously, immediately after which the organism is given a reinforcer reward; after this procedure is repeated many times, the frequency of emission of the targeted response will have significantly increased over its preexperiment base rate.
See also: schedules of reinforcement.

operant conditioning

n. Psychology
A learning process in which the likelihood of a specific behavior is increased or decreased through positive or negative reinforcement each time the behavior is exhibited, so that the subject comes to associate the pleasure or displeasure of the reinforcement with the behavior.

op·er·ant con·di·tion·ing

(opĕr-ănt kŏn-dishŭn-ing)
Experiment in which an experimenter waits for the target response (head scratching) to be conditioned to occur (emitted) spontaneously, immediately after which the organism is given a reinforcer reward.

operant conditioning

A method of behaviour therapy in which a response is reinforced or suppressed, whenever it occurs, by immediate reward or punishment.

operant conditioning

a form of learning in animal behaviour where rewards and punishments are used to strengthen or weaken behaviour patterns. See TRIAL AND ERROR LEARNING.

Skinner,

Burrhus Frederic, U.S. psychologist, 1904-1990.
Skinner box - an experimental apparatus in which an animal presses a lever to obtain a reward or receive punishment.
skinnerian conditioning - an experimenter waits for the target response to be conditioned to occur spontaneously, immediately after which the organism is given a reinforcer reward. Synonym(s): operant conditioning

op·er·ant con·di·tion·ing

(opĕr-ănt kŏn-dishŭn-ing)
Type of conditioning in which an experimenter waits for target response (e.g., head scratching) to be conditioned to occur (emitted) spontaneously, immediately after which organism is given a reinforcer reward.
References in periodicals archive ?
Theories that explain operant conditioning and related phenomena postulate a connection between a set of initial conditions (including a stimulus and an antecedent motivational state) and a tendency to act.
It is amazing that otherwise good scholars fail to either know or acknowledge that the process they are talking about is a form of selection by consequences called operant conditioning (see Skinner, 1981).
The examples provided thus far are relatively simple examples, but a creative instructor can model other, more sophisticated operant conditioning phenomena as well.
Good training plans take both operant conditioning and classical conditioning into account.
Some 60 years later, sEMG continues to be an important avenue for the transfer of behavioral technology into applied settings using operant conditioning. For example, sEMG biofeedback has recently been used to treat temporomandibular disorders (e.g., Crider, Glaros, Gevirtz, 2005), fecal incontinence (e.g., Dannecker, Wolf, Raab, Hepp, Anthuber, et al., 2005), muscle tension headaches (e.g., Grazzi, Andrasik, D'Amico, Leone, Moschiano, Bussone, 2001) and stroke-related dysphagia (e.g., Crary, Carnaby, Groher, Helseth, 2005).
It must be offset by desensitization and operant conditioning. This is supported by Chang (1998) in her descriptions of the initial reluctance of Japanese soldiers to commit atrocities in Nanking, but culminating in incredible subsequent brutality.
At mid-twentieth century, the dominant framework for lesson design--the programmed instruction format--was derived from efforts to apply operant conditioning to human learning.
From this point of view, the blocking phenomenon in operant conditioning is unexpected.
The papers in this book look at these topics, as well as defining our current understanding of the mechanisms of neuroplasticity, looking at large-scale plastic neurological remodeling as the primary method of recovery from stroke, discussing computer-delivered therapies for performance improvements in skills like music reading through operant conditioning, therapies for developmentally disabled and autistic individuals, and evidence for connections between organic brain changes and gains or losses in skills and abilities.
Because classical and operant conditioning work together, at the same time your dog is creating a healthy association with your new furred, finned, or feathered family member (Cockatiels make pieces of delicious chicken appear!) he is also learning a new behavior (If I sit by my human's side when the cockatiel is present I can make her feed me pieces of chicken!).
It has new research on the identification of behavioral economic principles in operant conditioning, the determination of conditions that lead to a reinforcer being devalued, and processes that involve the reinforcing power of psychoactive drugs, as well as new material on language and memory and new biographies of researchers.