Mortality rates after closed and open laparoscopy
were respectively 0.003 per cent and zero5.
in their comparison between open and closed techniques found that the rates of visceral and vascular injury were respectively 0.08% and 0.07% after closed laparoscopy, and 0.05% and 0% after open laparoscopy
(p=0.002).17 Chapron, on the other hand, reported that the bowel and major vessel injury rates were 0.04% and 0.01% in the closed technique (n = 8324) and 0.19% and 0% in the open technique (n = 1562), respectively.
Linking high rates of conversion to open laparoscopy
to surgical inexperience is only an assumption.
The Hasson technique (open laparoscopy
) was used to insert a 10-mm camera port (primary port) at the umbilicus.
as a method of access in laparoscopic surgery.
Routine use of open laparoscopy
: 1,006 consecutive cases.
Port-site metastases after open laparoscopy
: a study in 173 patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma.
Regular laparoscopy, open laparoscopy
, and the direct trochar incision method have all been shown to have a similar frequency of complications.
The complications described in the opening case could have been avoided if the surgeon had performed a simple open laparoscopy
Only four of the procedures required conversion to an open laparoscopy
, for a success rate of more than 99%, and there were no bowel or vascular injuries using this technique, he reported at the annual meeting of the American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists.
is suitable when adhesions are unlikely
techniques, which allow the surgeon to enter the peritoneal cavity by direct vision without a sharp trocar, may diminish but not eliminate the risk of bowel injury.