It forms leucine-rich repeat protein 1 (LRIM1)/anopheles plasmodium-responsive leucine-rich repeat protein (APL) 1/TEP1cut complex and gets accumulated on the ookinete
surface for killing.
PfENO is an interesting transmission-blocking candidate present on the parasite ookinete
surface and assists in ookinete
invasion of midgut epithelium by recruiting human serine plasminogen through a lysine motif (277-Ala-Lys-Ser-Leu-Val-Lys-282) .
Jacalin (a lectin) inhibits ookinete
attachment by masking glycan ligands on midgut epithelial surface glycoprotein's.
Plasmodium vivax ookinete
surface protein Pvs25 linked to cholera toxin B subunit induces potent transmission-blocking immunity by intranasal as well as subcutaneous immunization.
During the ookinete
life stage, the parasite links to these receptors as it migrates to the salivary glands.
Successful development includes exflagellation, fertilization, ookinete
formation, and penetration through the peritrophic matrix and midgut epithelium to form oocysts.
destruction within the mosquito midgut lumen explains Anopheles albimanus refractoriness to Plasmodium falciparum (3D7A) oocyst infection.
vivax MSP1 fragments (Pv200L); the parasite ligand that contains the receptor-binding domain for Duffy binding protein (DBP-RII); the apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1); the ookinete
surface antigens (Pvs25 and Pvs28) candidate to transmission blocking vaccines; and several other genes from the asexual blood stages (e.g., MSP3, MSP4, MSP5, MSP9, and the reticulocyte binding protein) that have been identified and partially characterized [17,18, 21].
Two types of Plasmodium ovale defined by SSU rRNA have distinct sequences for ookinete
vivax also has O-type genes, which are expressed during ookinete
and oocyst development.
falciparum in anophelines by altering kinetics of ookinete
More recently, two types of sequences have been characterized for the ookinete
surface protein genes, Pos 25, Pos 28-1, and Pos 28-2 in P.