The use of albumin, mannitol, dextran, HES, or fresh frozen plasma with the aim of increasing the intravascular oncotic
pressure in order to maintain the intravascular volume is recommended.
Transudates can accumulate according to alterations of hydrostatic or oncotic
pressure within vasculature or interstitium of an organ (Coles, 1986).
Several studies have shown that serum hypoalbuminemia can be an independent risk factor for decreased microperfusion and pressure ulcers because albumin helps maintain oncotic
pressure and vascular refilling [22-24].
pressure in solid tumors is elevated," Cancer Research, vol.
Pulmonary edema can worsen during the postpartum period by returning blood from the uterus to central circulation, leading to low colloid oncotic
pressure and increased vascular permeability .
These include facilitation of egress of edema fluid from the retina to the choroid by reducing both the oncotic
pressure and viscosity of the subretinal fluid as well as the wash out of inflammatory cytokines and migratory cells above the RPE.
Among them, two were the oncotic
(swollen cell following rupture) and apoptotic (programmed cell death) pathways whereas in the third death pathway, the outer hair cells lose their basolateral cell membrane but maintain their cytoplasm with cellular debris intact in a cylindrical frame structure .
Lemasters, "Apoptosis versus oncotic
necrosis in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury," Gastroenterology, vol.
pressure in human tumor xenografts (86th ed.).
The preservation solution should be formulated to the same specifications as the perfusate as inadequate oncotic
pressure may lead to edema formation even before ECP LA has been initiated (Drapanas et al., 1966).
This process has been traditionally defined since Starling first described the basic forces regulating fluid migration, with hydrostatic forces favoring the crossing of the fluid to alveolar spaces and interstitial oncotic
pressures supporting retention of the fluid in the interstitial spaces.
The precise mechanism of injury is not fully understood, but involves direct injury from formation of intracellular and extracellular ice crystals, subsequent intracellular dehydration due to increased oncotic
pressure, and reperfusion injury during tissue warming.